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Back to the Future of DNA

Tuesday, June 03, 2014

From Teresa Yates' work-in-progress, here is a post from eight years ago that still strikes a timely note. Yates' new book is titled DNA and You and reprises fifteen years of the blogosphere from the early, heroic days of DNA testing. It is expected to appear this summer.

Wild, Wooly World of DNA May Create, As Well As Solve, Problems

Abstracted from The New York Times

The first in a series of articles in the New York Times, titled "The DNA Age" presents case histories of people whose DNA tests are turning out to be mixed blessings, arousing more expectations than may be justified. From the adopted twins who are looking for financial aid after finding out they are part African and part Native American to the man raised a gentile attempting to invoke the law of return to Israel following the revelation his DNA matched Ashkenazi Jews, the series by Amy Harmon apparently intends to explore the two sides of DNA—the answers it brings, along with the new questions it raises.

On another front, Indian tribes routinely refuse to accept DNA evidence. According to the article, though, this has not deterred prospective new enrollees. "It used to be 'someone said my grandmother was an Indian,' " says Joyce Walker, the enrollment clerk who regularly turns away DNA petitioners for the Mashantucket Pequot tribe, which operates the lucrative Foxwoods Resort Casino in Connecticut. "Now it's 'my DNA says my grandmother was an Indian.'"

The title of the first of the series is "Seeking Ancestry in DNA Ties Uncovered by Tests." One of the featured DNA test takers was a customer of DNA Consultants.

April 13, 2006

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Daniel Defoe, Jew

Monday, May 26, 2014
Author's Famous Chair Preserved by Quakers Tells All

A chapter in the new book from McFarland The Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales: A Genetic and Genealogical History (April 29, 2014) proposes on the basis of original genealogical research by Donald Yates that Daniel Defoe (in engraving), the author of Robinson Crusoe, came from an old Sephardic Jewish family, the De Foas. 

If that is true he deserves a place as the forerunner among a galaxy of Jewish novelists and masters of world literature that includes Sholom Aleichem, Saul Bellow, Bernard Malamud, Franz Kafka, Isaac Singer, Arthur Koestler, Herman Wouk, Mordecai Richler, Norman Mailer, Stefan Zweig, Nathaniel West, Sidney Sheldon, Muriel Spark and Leon Uris. Many literary critics consider Defoe the inventor of the modern novel.

Judge for yourself from the opening paragraphs of "Daniel Defoe and Robinson Crusoe." Note, in addition to Defoe, Foe and Foa, the names Annesley, Devereux, Fall, King, Maxwell, Levitt, Job, Wells, Raleigh, Grenville (now Granville), Champernoun, Gilbert, Drake, St. Leger, Zouche, Hawkins, Phoebus, Foix and Carew. Clues for your genealogy!

From The Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales, by Elizabeth Caldwell Hirschman and Donald N. Yates (Jefferson:  McFarland, 2014).

Much is known about Daniel Defoe, the creator of the first English novel Robinson Crusoe, originally published in 1719. But as the scholar John Richetti remarks in his biography, much is also unknown. “Despite several centuries of literary and biographical criticism . . . and of repeated biographical investigation . . . the inner man, the personality, the actual Defoe, remains an elusive and even a mysterious figure.”[i] In this chapter, we intend to show that Defoe’s ancestry was Jewish and that many of his social concerns, religious beliefs, attitudes, activism and artistic aspirations were those of a self-conscious British Jew of the seventeenth and eighteenth century.

            The author’s family name was Foe, at least in its latest manifestation.[ii] Daniel added what his detractors referred to as a “Frenchified aristocratic prefix” in 1695, when he was a young man in his thirties. It was a time shortly after he had become established in his business career as owner of a Dutch brick factory in the town of Tilbury in Essex.[iii] The facts of Daniel Defoe’s genealogy are set forth in the adjoining chart. The first mystery we are confronted with is the absence of a birth record. He was the third child and only son of James Foe, a merchant and citizen of London living with his wife Ailce[iv] in the Broad Street Ward of Cripplegate (also called Jew’s Gate), a commercial district in the heart of the Old City, today’s Barbican Center. Jewin Street, now covered by Defoe House, was the only place where Jews were allowed to be buried. Daniel’s two older sisters were Mary, born 1657, who would marry Francis Barham and later the natural philosopher Robert Davis, and Elizabeth, who would become the wife of James A. Maxwell, a Quaker. Both siblings have birth records, but the parish register of St. Giles Cripplegate lists their births in a distinct manner as “borne but not christened.”[v] Biographers and commentators are at pains to explain the reason why, or to suggest an explanation for their brother’s lack of a birth record. The precise birthdate of September 30, 1660 sometimes given for Daniel Defoe is based on a chain of conjectures from his fiction and not on actual records.[vi]  We can only be sure that he was born in 1660, a pivotal year marked by the return of Charles II and end of the Cromwellian period.

            Of Daniel Defoe’s ancestry, most writers today are content to say that his grandfather was a yeoman farmer from the little village of Etton in the East Midlands, and that the Foes can be traced back to sturdy rural English stock. That this is not the whole story, however, is suggested by some of the names in the Foe family tree. To begin with, Daniel was not an ordinary English given name in the time when the author’s grandfather Daniel Foe was born, in 1598, not in his grandson’s day either. In the nineteenth century it was still so distinctly Jewish that George Eliot used it for the title character of her novel Daniel Deronda about an English gentleman who gradually awakens to the fact of his Sephardic Jewish ancestry and becomes a Zionist. Rose, the name of Daniel Defoe’s grandmother, is also Jewish.[vii] We do not know her maiden name, but after the death of her first husband Rose Foe married Solomon Fall of Maxie, Northamptonshire  (Jewish first and last name), and after being widowed again in 1641, she moved to Huntingdon, where she married Thomas King, a widower with two children, one of whom became the wife of her eldest son Daniel in 1643.[viii] Daniel Jr. died on the family farm in Etton in 1647, but his older brother Henry went to London and became the apprentice of the saddler John Levitt (“Levite”). James, Rose’s youngest son by her first marriage to Daniel Foe, born 1630, followed Henry to the city at the age of fourteen and was apprenticed as a chandler to the same John Levitt, a member of the Butchers’ Company trade guild.[ix]

            Defoe wrote in one instance that his grandfather was a country gentleman who rode to the hounds, giving the good ones names from one political party and the bad ones names from the opposite faction. He also boasted an armorial device with three griffons. But at the same time, he claimed kinship with Sir Walter Raleigh, the quintessential crypto-Jew.[x] Biographers have been eager to validate his assertions about his grandfather, Daniel Foe, but skeptical of the Raleigh connection. If true, says one of them, “the strain must have been thin indeed by the time of Defoe’s birth.”[xi] Yet only a little over a century separated the Elizabethan Protestant explorer-courtier from the enigmatic journalist and author of Robinson Crusoe. Moreover, the chronicles of the Raleighs, Grenvilles (now Granvilles), Champernouns, Gilberts, Drakes, St. Legers, Zouches, Hawkins and Carews were by no means finished.

            A clue to Defoe’s real ancestry emerged in the nineteenth century when a descendant in America came forward with a family heirloom described as the chair in which Defoe wrote Robinson Crusoe. We will tell this charming story in the words of Joseph T. Richards as reported by local historian of Cecil County, Maryland, Alice E. Miller. This writer starts by recounting the history of Blue Ball, an old inn near the Quaker site of Brick Meeting House. Andrew Job established it about 1710 and went to Philadelphia, returning with a bond-servant, Elizabeth Maxwell, the runaway niece of the novelist Daniel Defoe.

 
          The Story of Elizabeth Maxwell

Until she was eighteen, Elizabeth lived in London. Her mother was born Defoe. She was the sister of Daniel. The brother’s desire to reform the realm by writing pamphlets criticizing Her Majesty’s Government got him into trouble. To escape arrest in 1705, he fled to Mrs. Maxwell’s home and lived in seclusion for years.

His niece, Elizabeth, became his pupil from her fifth year, and enjoyed her uncle’s company and stories. When she was eighteen, she became engaged to a young man of whom her mother did not approve. The bar to their marriage made the girl despondent and she felt that she must cut herself off from all of her accustomed association with her friends. After a few months of this isolation, Elizabeth heard that a ship was about to set sail for America from a wharf near her home. Without a word to anyone, she ran aboard just in time and was off. After long weeks on the voyage, she made port in Philadelphia.

Such unceremonious passage as this was not unusual in those days, apparently, and these young people did not hesitate to sell themselves as bond servants to those who paid their passage money. So Elizabeth and a group of her fellow passengers came up for sale soon after landing. In the crowd around the auction block she saw a man wearing a broad-brimmed hat of the Quakers. She had known these people at home to be kindly, and so she asked this man to pay her passage money and to take her as a servant for the required seven years.

This man was Andrew Job. He had five sons, but no daughters. His wife needed help in her housekeeping. So Andrew paid Elizabeth’s fare, and started home with her. He lived at East Nottingham, some fifty-five miles away . . . near the Brick Meeting House, now the village of Calvert. . . .

Elizabeth served out her seven years, but during all that time she did not write home. At the end of her time of service, she married one of the five sons, Thomas Job . . . . Then she wrote home, telling her mother the whole story.

Months passed. Finally a letter from Uncle Daniel. Then she learned that her mother’s anxiety for her safety could never be satisfied, for she had died years earlier.

Her uncle told her further that by her mother’s will ‘in case she should ever be found alive’ she was to have a good property and her mother’s furniture. Daniel said that he would send the furniture to her and asked that she preserve it carefully, because it had ‘come to the family from their Flemish ancestors who had sought refuge under the banner of Queen Elizabeth from the tyranny of Phillipe [sic].’

He went on to apologize for the wooden seats in the two chairs, explaining that he had worn out the cane seats and had replaced them with wooden ones.

It is interesting to know that at least one of these chairs is still to be seen at Nottingham . . .

The eighty-year-plus-old man telling this amazing tale ends by speculating that Defoe’s loneliness after his niece’s sudden flight may have set his mood for writing Robinson Crusoe in 1719.[xii]  The Defoe chair passed into the keeping of the Historical Society of Delaware, and a longer version of its provenance appeared in Scribners Monthly in 1876.[xiii]

            What we learn from this lore is that the original Foe family was not English, but “Flemish.” If the founding forefather joined the forces of the Protestant English campaigning against the Catholic king Phillip II, this was probably at the beginning of the Anglo-Dutch War when Elizabeth I sent Robert Dudley to lift the siege of Antwerp by the Duke of Parma in the summer of 1585. Droves of Sephardic Jews in exile from Spain and Portugal in Flanders took the side of the English, Dutch and French, leading eventually to the independence of the Netherlands and the partition of Flanders between Catholics and Protestants. Daniel’s eponymous ancestor Jacobus de Foe, born 1578, was undoubtedly one of these new Flemings sworn to resistance against the Spanish. The family name, we believe, was Foa, an armigerous Sephardic line named for their ancient seat of Foix in the Aquitaine region of France.[xiv] Defoe apparently even alludes to this ancestry, tongue in cheek, when he writes of noble descent from “the De Beau Faux.”[xv] Defoe’s editor Henry Morley mentions it in attempting to account for Defoe’s fluent foreign language capacities and business trips: “He had connections in Spain, and it may even be that his family had Spanish origins, and at some former time had anglicised the name of Foà into Foe.”[xvi]

            Curiously, Defoe’s enemies accused him of being Dutch. John Tutchin fired off the dunce’s poem called “The Foreigners” in 1701 aimed at William III’s favorites Hans Willem Bentinck, first earl of Portland, and Arnold Joost van Keppel, first earl of Albemarle. In it, he represented England as Israel, with its autocratic Stuart monarch “all their Plagues . . . crammed in the Single Person of a King,” and Holland a country lying “due east from Judah’s Shoar . . . Its Natives void of Honesty and Grace, A Boorish, rude, and an inhumane Race . . . born in Bogs.”

Let them in foreign States proudly command,

They have no Portion in the Promis’d Land,

Which immemoriably has been decreed

To be the Birth-right of the Jewish Seed.

Evidently, in this political allegory, Scotland and Ireland are the realm of Hiram and the Phoenicians, “ye Jewish Nobles” are the English peerage, and Sanhedrins are the Houses of Parliament. The Puritan doctrine of equating the destiny of the British with that of the people of Israel was so engrained by this time that it passed for an article of political faith. But the radical Whigs were probably not prepared for what came from the pen of a verifiable Jew. Defoe responded with “The True-Born Englishman:  A Satire,” lampooning the very notion of any purity of race. This effort won him a stipend from the king and led to his being tapped as a secret agent by Robert Harley, earl of Oxford. Defoe even adopted “True-Born Englishman” as his ironic nom de plume, publishing his collected works to date under that name in 1703 and 1705.

            Defoe’s existing portraits are highly burnished, revealing little about his appearance other than a pronounced sharp nose. But a “wanted” description put out after one of his skirmishes with the law paints a distinctly foreign picture of him:

He is a middle Sized Spare Man about 40 years old, of a brown Complexion, and dark brown coloured Hair wears a Wig, a hooked Nose, a sharp Chin, grey Eyes, and a large Mould near his Mouth, was born in London, and for many years was a Hose Factor in Freeman’s-yard in Corn hill, and now is Owner of the Brick and Pantile Works near Tilbury-Fort in Essex.[xvii]

From Defoe’s genealogy readers will also notice that his first naturalized English ancestor Jacobus de Foe marries Wilson Annesley. She must have been a member of the distinguished Nottinghamshire family of that name. The pedigree includes Robert Annesley, high constable of Newport, Buckinghamshire; his son the English and Irish statesman Francis Annesley, 1st Viscount Valentia; Charles II’s Keeper of the Privy Seal Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey (1614 –1686); and most fittingly Defoe’s family pastor, Samuel Annesley (1620? – 1696),  a prominent Dissenter, from the Warwickshire branch. Samuel Annesley served as chaplain to Robert Rich, the earl of Warwick, son of the first earl and Lady Rich, Penelope Devereux, countess of Devon, sister of Robert Devereux and the “Stella” of Sir Philip Sidney’s love poetry. Annesley came, then, from a carefully endogamous set of forbears. Contemporaries called him “an Israelite indeed.”[xviii]

The designation Dissenter had a loose—and shifting—meaning. Today, we might apply the term Presbyterian to the majority of seventeenth century Dissenters. But when it first came into usage the word described those, like Annesley, who feared that the 1662 Act of Uniformity introduced by Charles II would lead to a suppression of Scripture for private devotion, as well as  disenfranchisement of all but Church of England adherents in public office. The new monarch flirted with absolutism in religion as in politics. With non-conformists panicking, Defoe was made by Pastor Annesley to copy the entire Bible by hand.  Looking back in middle age, he wrote in a characteristically flippant manner:

How many Honest but over-frighted People, set to Work to Copy the Bible into Short-Hand, lest when Popery come in, we should be Prohibited the use of it, and so might secure it in little Compass? At which Work, I my self then, but a Boy, work’d like a Horse till I wrote out the whole Pentateuch, and then was so tyr’d, I was willing to run the Risque of the rest.[xix]

Is Defoe being less than disingenuous here? One wonders if there might not be more to the fact that he stopped with the part of the Bible that constituted the Hebrew Torah, which would have sufficed the needs of a crypto-Jewish congregation.

            Defoe lived, and wrote, dangerously, and he defied anyone to look into his conscience. Before the novel  Robinson Crusoe appeared in 1719, his best-known publication was the The Shortest Way with the Dissenters (1702). This pamphlet parodied extremist Anglican views and was conceived in the same spirit as Jonathan Swift’s A Modest Proposal. Just as Swift was to suggest that a solution to the economic troubles of the Irish lay in poor families selling their children as food to rich gentlemen and ladies, Defoe urged leaders of the Church of England to adopt the simple expedient of forced mass emigration and selective execution of Dissenters. If anyone disagreed with the Queen, it was obvious what must be done:  “Those of the contrary Opinion to Hers, must be Extirpated, must be cut off Root and Branch; and like the Jews by Edward the First’s Sanguinary Laws, Dispers’d, Banish’d, and Kill’d; and render’d Extinct they and their Posterity.” Defoe extended the same logic to Occasional Dissenters, the “Apples” swimming merrily downstream with the “Horse-Turds.”

It was a satirical ruse that backfired. The high-toned Anglicans and Tory members of Parliament were not amused. They burnt Defoe in effigy, swore out a warrant for his arrest and appointed a vicious special prosecutor. As John Richetti wrote of the incident:

From the appearance of that pamphlet Defoe is in nearly constant dialogue with his enemies, and his work is a series of fierce polemics, ferocious attacks and counter attacks. Defoe is an author whose life was changed by one piece of writing. . . . Defoe became a wanted man who was forced for the rest of his life to survive mainly as an embattled writer and political operative rather than a prosperous merchant and manufacturer who dabbled in writing . . . . Defoe would return obsessively to the misunderstandings of his writing that landed him not once but twice in jail and once in the pillory, and his polemical journalism, notably the Review, would be to an important extent based on a continuing complaint, a life-long grievance, that he was misunderstood and misrepresented by both friends and enemies.[xx]



[i] John Richetti, The Life of Daniel Defoe (Malden:  Blackwell, 2005) vii-viii.

[ii] Variants, some dubious, appear to be Fow, Fowe, Fohe, Fohee, Faeoe, Foy, Fay, Foye, Fooe and Fou. Reaney and Wilson have no entry for either Foe or Defoe. Excellent information on Foe’s origins and writings can be found in the article on him in the Dictionary of National Biography written by its first editor Sir Leslie Stephen, vol. 5 (London:  Oxford UP, 1921) 730-43.

[iii] Richetti 18.

[iv] The name of Defoe’s mother is so spelled in the only records mentioning her, though biographers usually take this as a parish clerk’s error and “normalize” it to Alice. Ailsey is a Jewish name.

[v] Maximillian E. Novak, Daniel Defoe, Master of Fictions. His Life and Ideas (Oxford:  Oxford UP, 2001) 20-21.

[vi] See, for instance, Sheldon Rogers, Notes & Queries 56.2 (2009) 226-28.

[vii] Roza was very popular among Sephardic women; see Gorr 80-81.

[viii] Novak 14.

[ix] Ibid 17-18.

[x] Jews and Muslims 10-15.

[xi] Novak 19.

[xii] Alice E. Miller, Cecil County, Maryland, A Study in Local History (Elkton:  C&L, 1949) 150-53.

[xiii] Mary E. Ireland, “The Defoe Family in America,” Scribners Monthly 12 (1876) 61-64.

[xiv] DSS 260, with branches in Rome, Bari, Busseto, Borgotaro, Colorno, Genoa, Venice, Asti, Milan, Napoli, Pisa, Varesa, Ivrea, Trieste, Florence, Turin, Parma, Alexandria, Lucca, Leghorn, Reggio Emilia, Casale Monferrato, Modena, Paris, Bordeaux, Marseille, Amsterdam, Tunisia, Buenos Aires, Sao Paulo and New York. Foix was the capital of a province of the same name, now the département of Ariége just south of Toulouse, the seat of Machir the Exilarch and center of southern French Jewry. “In the Middle Ages, one finds a number of Jews in the county of Foix and particularly at Pamiers, where they were treated with high regard by the local rulers and officials of the Church” (Gross, Gallia Judaica 438-439). Queen Katherine’s aunt, Eleanor of Aragon, married Gaston IV de Foix (she had other Jewish ancestry as well). Following the expulsion of Jews from France, the count of Foix pleaded to be allowed to keep the Jews, a scenario that occurred as far back as the twelfth century. In Hebrew the name was pronounced Po-eesh and in the Provencal language “Foish”; in other words the final consonant was sounded, distinguishing it from the word foi. Our favorite whipping boy Reaney and Wilson notes several occurrences in England (including John Foys, 1359, Devon) but derives all from Old French foi “faith,” despite the fact that foi has no s (DES 176). The last count of Foix, also king of Navarre, Francis Phoebus, had a Jewish name which may point to the true origin of the place-name Foix,  instead of the apocryphal St. Faith.  

[xv] Novak 19.

[xvi] The Earlier Life and the Chief Earlier Works of Daniel Defoe, ed. Henry Morley (London:  Routledge, 1886) 17.

[xvii] Richetti 22.

[xviii] Paula R. Backschneider, Daniel Defoe. His Life (Baltimore:  Johns Hopkins UP, 1989) 13.

[xix] Richetti 3.

[xx] Ibid 20. 


Comments

Brant Boucher commented on 29-May-2014 09:58 PM

I am reading the book in question above and find it quite interesting and informative. The authors over-state their case, perhaps, but I do not doubt that the basic thesis is sound, namely that there were many Jews and Muslims in the UK during the period under study and that many well-known names originated as crypto-Jews or crypto-Muslims.

I have an extensive and increasingly deep genealogy with some known and unquestionable Jews in the distant past (before Charlemagne) and which includes many of the authors alleged crypto-Jews and Muslims more recently (in the Middle Ages. (Example: Sir Walter Raleigh's family)

But I am skeptical of claims based solely on first names. For example, Jacobius might very well be another James (there being many Saint James to choose from when naming your Christian child). Many of my non-crypto Jewish ancestors are recorded in English parish records with latinized versions of their first names as recently as the 1700s. Many of these are from Yorkshire.

Family names are also weak evidence. There is a Dutch name Voe and many Amercans named Dafoe or Defoe or Devoe, and most of these seem to be Swiss, Dutch or German, possibly even Amish or Mennonite.

Just because a surname originated as a Jewish name doesn't mean Jewish culture and religion survived past the conversion. Some simply abandoned their faith. Yes, many Christians and Muslims were and are crypto-Jews and still practice many customs and religious rites of their ancestors privately. This is especially true in Spain, Portugal and their colonies where the Inquisition was still active as late as the early 1800s.

DNA would greatly assist in distinguishing long converted Jewish lineages from genuine crypto-Jews still preserving some of their customs and Jewish faith.

My own Y chromosome is of Middle Eastern origin but it is a puzzle to me how to prove I got it from Jews because it had already reached Europe 12,000 years ago and Judaism is usually thought to be about 4,000 years old. While the Jewish religion was in a formative state, these Middle Easterners were bringing agriculture to Scotland and Scandinavia. And if you mean modern Judaism, the Talmud reached Europe just before the time of Charlemagne but took about 200 years to "take" among already long established French Jews, let alone the alleged crypto-Jewish descended from Jewish traders spread across Europe under the Roman Empire; Muslim traders who spread themselves without a Roman Empire; and Phoenicians or others who are virtually indistinguishable from their distant cousins of Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Samaritan, Assyrian or other religious heritage.

The authors have a solid premise I believe but their evidence is extremely shaky in most cases. They keep forgetting they are supposed to be skeptical of their own evidence.

I suggest somebody find living male line descendants of Defoe if they can and test them to establish whether he has a so-called "Jewish or Muslim" haplogroup and where and when it originated. It could be thousands of years too old to be Jewish in any way, shape or form.

After much research, I am convinced my own Y chromosome has been on the road a long time from its origins tens of thousands of years ago in the common African home of mitochondrial Eve and Y Chromosome Adam.


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Were the Irish O'Haras in America Before Columbus?

Thursday, May 15, 2014

Spanish documents suggest Irish arrived in America before Columbus

By Kerry O'Shea (@IrishCentral.com)

May 13, 2014

While Christopher Columbus is generally credited with having discovered America in 1492, a 1521 Spanish report provides inklings of evidence that there were, in fact, Irish people settled in America prior to Columbus’ journey.

“Researchers feel certain that there was a colony of Irish folk living in what is now South Carolina, when Christopher Columbus “thought” he had discovered the New World,” writes Richard Thornton for The Examiner.

In 1520, Peter Martyr d'Anghiera, a historian and professor, was appointed by Carlos V to be chronicler for the new Council of the Indies.

Though Martyr died in 1526, his report, founded on several weeks of interviews, was published posthumously in a book named De Orbe Novo (About the New World). The book has been published and translated numerous times in the centuries since then. The passages concerning the land that would become Georgia and the Carolinas were always included, but generally ignored, says Thornton.

While interviewing Spanish colonists, Martyr took note of their vicious treatment of Chicora Indians. However, he also included in his report that the Spanish colonists had a very good relationship with another nearby colony, which Martyr reported to be named Duhare.

Physically, the people of Duhare appeared to be European according to the Spanish colonists in the area. The people of Duhare had red to brown hair, tan skin and gray eyes, and were noticeably taller than the Spanish. According to Spanish accounts, the people of Duhare were Caucasian, though their houses and pottery were similar to those of American Indians.

The king of Duhare was said to be named Datha and was described by the Spanish as being a giant, even when compared to his peers. He had five children and a wife as tall as him. Datha had brightly colored paint or tattoos on his skin that seemed to distinguish him from the commoners.



Read more: http://www.irishcentral.com/roots/history/old-spanish-document-suggests-irish-were-in-america-before-columbus-190817901-237769001.html#ixzz31qZtBsTr 
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Anonymous commented on 22-May-2014 10:54 PM

http://www.thelibraryofhope.com/thesecretcitywebsite.htm

This book discusses Irish being encountered by the Norse in their Vinland expeditions.


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Virginia Surnames and Families with Possible Jewish (and Muslim) Roots

Friday, May 02, 2014

In our continuing series of notes on colonial genealogies, we give here the the complete appendix containing all early lists of emigrants to Virginia, taken from Jews and Muslims in British Colonial America (2012). This was the second volume in a series that began with When Scotland Was Jewish (2007) and concludes this month (May 2014) with the publication of The Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales: A Genetic and Genealogical History. Are any of your colonial ancestors listed? If they are it is likely they bore Jewish ancestry, even if they did not practice Judaism and even if they presented themselves as Christian. 

Left:  As discussed in the associated chapter, "Virginia - First and Not So English - Colony," William Byrd was undoubtedly crypto-Jewish.

From the book by Hirschman and Yates
"William Byrd, the ancestor of the Byrds of Virginia, was the son of John Bird, a London goldsmith.[i]  The earliest firm genealogical record for the family is mention of a Thomas Bird, apprenticed to Henry Sacheverell (Hebrew anagram),[ii] vintner, in 1608, subsequently admitted to the Wine Merchants Company in 1616.  Thomas Bird married his first cousin Elizabeth Bird.  It was Thomas’ son, John who became a goldsmith.  What is transparent from these records, given the occupations of wine merchant and goldsmith and first cousin marriage, is that the Birds/Byrds were Jewish.  Byrd was not an English name before this family became prominent. The first of that name probably came to England as a court musician like the Sephardic Anthons mentioned earlier:  a relative was William Byrd, the Renaissance court composer (circa 1540-1623). Publicly they were not Jewish, as Jews were officially banned from England until 1664. They were privately Jewish or crypto-Jewish as so many other persons in London at the time. It is likely that at least the first generation officially practiced Catholicism, the religion of their parent country. English custom in London and other major cities allowed Spanish and Portuguese Jews as foreigners to worship at their own parish churches, which were presumed to be Catholic.

            "William Byrd came to Virginia at the request of his uncle Captain Thomas Stegge, who was childless and designated William his heir.  Although the exact date is unknown, his arrival was probably around 1670.  The Stegges were traders with the Indians, primarily Catawbas and Cherokees, another profession markedly Jewish. Upon reaching adulthood and receiving his inheritance, Bird entered the lucrative triangular trade between Virginia, Barbados and Africa. Tobacco, deerskins, sugar, rum, and slaves were the primary commodities of exchange. Typically, those who plied this trade imported slaves from Portuguese middlemen off the Guinea Coast of Africa. In Barbados, rum and sugar were taken onboard to be transported to Virginia. American planters paid for rum, sugar and slaves in tobacco or deerskins and received credit in England or Scotland paid out to them in manufactured goods supplied on the steady stream of ships carrying new colonists. Except for the profit margins of the merchants, frequently Jews, no money changed hands, this only in England, thus preserving the mother country’s prohibition about allowing specie to flow into the colonies or accumulate there.

            "In 1673 Byrd married Mary Horsmanden, whose lineage goes back to the St. Leger family of Cornwall mentioned in chapter one. Very importantly, biographer Alden Hatch tells us that this St. Leger family traced its ancestry back to Baudoin III, King of Jerusalem during the Crusades, who was evidently of Jewish descent.  Byrd soon became Receiver General of the King’s Revenue, as well as Auditor of Virginia. As Hatch notes, he both collected the taxes and audited them!

           "There are other strong cues regarding Bird’s ancestry and religious leanings.  Hatch states that Byrd “regarded Catholics as but one degree above the devils from hell.”  In 1699 when the Huguenots were under attack once again by a Catholic monarch, it was William Byrd of Virginia who championed their cause. About three hundred of them were brought to safety in Virginia and another two hundred the following year. “Largely as a result of the arguments presented by William Byrd to the Board of Trade, between 700 and 800 [Huguenots] settled in Virginia.”[iii]   Such activities are in complete conformity with the efforts begun in the late 1500s by Raleigh and Drake to settle their Sephardic and Morisco kinsmen in the New World.  Both Raleigh and Drake had assisted the Huguenots in France before and after the infamous St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in 1572.  In the 1705 edition of his History, Robert Beverley wrote of “the Goodness and generosity of Colonel Byrd toward these distressed Huguenots.” Beverly goes on to say, 

Upon their first Arrival in that country, he [Byrd] received them with all the tenderness of a Father, and ever since has constantly given them the utmost assistance… employing all his Skill, and all his friends to advance their interest both publickly and privately….  What Liberties has he not all along allowed them on his own plantations to furnish themselves from thence Corn and other necessaries?  His Mills have been at their Service to grind their Corn toll-free….  With what Zeal did he represent their Cause to the Assembly?  And with what earnestness did he press all his Friends in their favor”?[iv]

Byrd was attended in his final days by one of them, his valet Jean Marat – who bears a common Sephardic/Arabic surname.

            "William Byrd’s son William II was educated in England, where he learned Hebrew, Greek and Latin.  Micajah Perry (nearly invariably a Sephardic name, as we have seen) was William Byrd, Sr.’s factor and agent in London and looked after William Byrd Jr.’s welfare as a student abroad.  In 1705 young William returned to Virginia and took over the family’s several mercantile and milling interests.  He had an avid interest in medicine and special fascination with the properties (and profits) in ginseng. This was a root gathered by Melungeons and shipped as far away as China during the late 1700s by Daniel Boone and John Jacob Astor (“from Asturia”).  William Byrd II married Lucy Parke. Lucy’s sister Frances would later marry John Custis (Costas), probably of Sephardic ancestry.

            "Hatch also reports from transcriptions of Byrd’s private diary that he would read one or two chapters of the Bible in Hebrew every morning.  Since the Hebrew Bible does not contain the New Testament, we must assume that William was reading the Torah.  Hatch continues, “Byrd was very strict about keeping the Sabbath.  He would allow no work to be done that could possibly be avoided; and even when it could not be helped… he was uneasy in his conscience and sought a Biblical excuse.”  Also according to Hatch, Byrd “frequently ducked going to [Christian] church.”  In our view, these descriptions illustrate crypto-Jewish behavior (appendix B)."

--pp. 55-56, Jews and Muslims in British Colonial America © Elizabeth Caldwell Hirschman and Donald N. Yates 2012



[i] Byrd  perhaps translated from Hebrew Zipporah, used of both males and females. In Germany, the Jewish surnames Vogel, Fogel and Feiglin are examples (Gorr 87). In general, see Alden Hatch, The Byrds of Virginia:  An American Dynasty, 1670 to the Present (New York:  Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, 1969) esp. 36, 48, 51, 118, 141, 165. William Byrd the composer also married a cousin, Juliana (a favorite Jewish name) Byrd (1568). Their children were Christopher (a good crypto-Jewish name), Elizabeth, Rachel (Hebrew), Mary, Catherine, Thomas and Edward.

[ii] Sacheverell appears to be derived from a contraction of Hebrew zera kodesh “holy seed,” as in the names Sachs, Saks and the like (Menk  641).

[iii] The respective Huguenot ancestors of author Donald Yates and his wife Teresa, Jean Pierre Bondurant (from Bon and Duran) and Pierre Prevot/Prevatt (Templar name from the Channel Islands), came on the same ship the Peter and Anthony.

[iv]Robert Beverley, The History of the Present State of Virginia (London:  R. Parker, 1705). 

 

Appendix E

 

Lists of Emigrants to Virginia 1585-1700

 

 

Given in this appendix are traditional lists of names for the earliest colonists in Virginia. The names generally are listed in the order and spelling of the source records. We have added some glosses and annotations in parentheses and notes.

The Names of Lane’s Colonists (1585)

The names of all those… that remained one whole yeere in Virginia under the Governement of Master Ralfe Lane.[1] National Park Service.

Master Philip Amades, Admirall of the countrie

Master Hariot

Master Acton

Master Edward Stafford

Thomas Luddington

Master Marvyn

Master Gardyner

Captaine Vaughan

Master Kendall

Master Prideox

Robert Holecroft

Rise Courtney

Master Hugh Rogers

Thomas Foxe

Edward Hugen

Darby Glande

Edward Kelle

John Gostigo

Erasmus Clefs

Edward Ketcheman

John Linsey

Thomas Rottenbury

Roger Deane

John Harris

Master Thomas Harvie

Master Smelling

Master Anthony Russe

Master Allyne

Maste Michel Polyson

John Cage

Thomas Parre

William Randes

Geffrey Churchman

William Farthowe

John Taylor

Philppe Robyns

Thomas Phillippes

Valentine Beale

James Skinner

George Eseven

John Chaundeler

Philip Blunt

Richard Poore

Robert Yong

Marmaduke Constable

Thomas Hesket

William Wasse

John Fever

Daniel

Frauncis Norris

Mathewe Lyne

Edward Kettell (Catteil?)

Thomas Wisse

Robert Biscombe

William Backhouse

William White

Henry Potkin

Dennis Barnes

Joseph Borges

Doughan Gannes

William Tenche

Randall Latham

Thomas Hulme

Walter Myll

Richard Gilbert

Steven Pomarie (Pomerie)

John Brocke

Bennett Harrye

James Stevenson

Christopher Lowde

Jeremie Man

James Mason

David Salter

Richard Ireland

Thomas Bookener (Buchener)

William Philippes

Randall Mayne

Thomas Taylor

Richard Humfrey

John Wright

Gabriell North

Bennet Chappell

Richard Sare

James Sare

James Lasie

Smolkin

Thomas Smart

Robert

John Evans

Roger Large

Humfrey Garden

Frauncis Whitton

Rowland Griffyn

William Millard

John Twyt

Edwarde Seklemore

John Anwike

Christopher Marshall

David Williams

Nicholas Swabber

Edward Chipping

Sylvester Beching

Vincent Cheyne

Haunce Walters

Edward Barecombe

Thomas Skevelabs

William Walters

The Names of the 1587 Virginia Colonists

The names of all the men, women and Children, which safely arrived in Virginia, and remained to inhabite there. 1587. Anno Regni Reginae Elizabethae.29. National Park Service.

John White [Governor]

Roger Bailie [Assistant]

Ananias Dare [Assistant]

Christopher Cooper [Asst.]

Thomas Stevens [Assistant]

John Sampson [Assistant]

Dyonis Harvie [Assistant]

Roger Prat [Assistant]

George Howe [Assistant]

Simon Fernando [Assistant]

Nicholas Johnson

Thomas Warner

Anthony Cage

John Jones

John Tydway

Ambrose Viccard

Edmond English

Thomas Topan

Henry Berrye

Richard Berrye

John Spendlove

John Hemmington

Thomas Butler

Edward Powell

John Burden

James Hynde

William Willes

John Brooke

Cutbert White

John Bright

Clement Tayler

Women

Elyoner Dare

Margery Harvie

Agnes Wood

Wenefrid Powell

Joyce Archard

Jane Jones

Elizabeth Glane

Jane Pierce

Audry Tappan

Alis Chapman

Emme Merrimoth

Colman

Margaret Lawrence

William Sole

John Cotsmur

Humfrey Newton

Thomas Colman

Thomas Gramme

Marke Bennet

John Gibbes

John Stilman

Robert Wilkinson

Peter Little

John Wyles

Brian Wyles

George Martyn

Hugh Pattenson

Martyn Sutton

John Farre

John Bridger

Griffin Jones

Richard Shaberdge

Thomas Ellis

William Browne

Michael Myllet

Thomas Smith

Richard Taverner

Thomas Harris

Richard Taverner

John Earnest

Henry Johnson

John Starte

Richard Darige

William Lucas

Joan Warren

Jane Mannering

Rose Payne

Elizabeth Viccars

Arnold Archard

John Wright

William Dutton

Morris Allen

William Waters

Richard Arthur

John Chapman

William Clement

Robert Little

Hugh Taylor

Richard Wildye

Lewes Wotton

Michael Bishop

Henry Browne

Henry Rufoote

Richard Tomkins

Henry Dorrell

Charles Florrie

Henry Mylton

Henry Payne

Thomas Harris

William Nicholes

Thomas Phevens

John Borden

Thomas Scot

James Lasie

John Cheven

Thomas Hewet

William Berde

Boys and Children

John Sampson

Robert Ellis

Ambrose Viccars

Thomas Archard

Thomas Humfrey

Thomas Smart

George Howe

John Prat

William Wythers

Children Born in Virginia

Virginia Dare

Harvye

 

 

 

 

Original Settlers (May 14, 1607) at Jamestown, Listed by Occupation.[2]

Source:  Virtual Jamestown; The First Residents of Jamestown.[3]

Name

Occupation

Master Edward Maria Wingfield, President

Captaine Bartholomew Gosnoll

Captaine John Smyth (or Smith)

Captaine John Ratliffe (or Ratcliffe)

Captaine John Martin

Captaine George Kendall

Council

Master Robert Hunt

Preacher and Gentleman

Master George Percy

Anthony Gosnoll

George Flower

Captaine Gabriell Archer

Robert Fenton

Robert Ford

William Bruster (or Brewster)

Edward Harrington

Dru Pickhouse (or Pigasse)

Thomas Jacob, Sergeant

John Brookes

Ellis Kingston (or Kiniston)

Thomas Sands

Benjamin Beast (Best)

John (or Jehu) Robinson (Melungeon name)

Ustis (or Eustace) Clovill

Stephen Halthrop

Kellam Throgmorton

Edward Morish (or Moris)

Nathaniell Powell

Edward Browne

Robert Behethland (or Betheland)

John Penington

Jeremy (or Jerome) Alicock

George Walker

Thomas Studley (or Stoodie)

Richard Crofts

Nicholas Houlgrave

Thomas Webbe

John Waller

John Short (Melungeon name)

William Tankard

William Smethes

Francis Snarsbrough

Richard Simons

Edward Brookes

Richard Dixon

John Martin

Roger Cooke

George Martin

Anthony Gosnold

Thomas Wotton (Wooten), Surgeon

John Stevenson

Henry Adling (or Adding)

Thomas Gower

Thomas Gore

Francis Midwinter

Richard Frith

Stephen Galthorpe (Goldthorp)

Gentlemen

William Laxton

Edward Pising

Thomas Emry

Robert Small

Carpenters

John Herd (Heard)

William Garret

Bricklayers

William Cassen (or Cawsen)

George Casson

Thomas Casson

Willam Rods (or Rodes = Rhodes)

William White (Melungeon name)

Ould Edward (perhaps a Scot or Irishman)

Henry Tavin (or Tauin: from Hebrew)

George Golding (or Goulding)

William Johnson

William Vnger (or Unger, i.e., Hungarian)

Labourers

Samuell Collier (Melungeon name)

James Brumfield

Richard Mutton (or Mullon=Mullin:  Melungeon name)

Boys (i.e. servants)

Anas Todkill, Soldier

Jonas Profit, Sailor, Fisher, Soldier (Melungeon name)

Thomas Couper (or Cowper: Melungeon name), Barber

Edward Brinto (or Brinton), Mason, Soldier

William Loue (or Love:  Melungeon name), Tailor, Soldier

Nicholas Skot (or Scot), Drummer

John Laydon (i.e., from Leiden), Labourer, Carpenter

John Dods (Dodds), Labourer, Soldier

William Wilkinson, Surgeon

James Read (Melungeon name), Blacksmith, Soldier

Nathaniel Pecock (or Peacock), Boy, Sailor, Soldier

Mathew Morton, Sailor

Other

John Asbie (Melungeon name)

Andrew Buckler

John Capper (perhaps Cooper)

William Dier (or Dye: Melungeon name)

Thomas Mounslie

Thomas Mouton

a Dutchman

Unclassified

 

 

Mariners and Others Known to Have Been with the Expedition that Established Jamestown on May 13, 1607. [4]

 

Source:  The First Residents of Jamestown.

Browne, Oliver

Clarke, Charles (Melungeon name)

Collson, John  Mariner

Cotson, John   Mariner

Deale, Jeremy

Fytch, Mathew  Mariner

Genoway, Richard (from Genoa?)

Godword, Thomas

Jackson, Robert (Melungeon name)

Markham, Robert

Nellson, Francys

Poole, Jonas

Skunner, Thomas

Turnbrydge (or Turbridge), Thomas

Newport, Christopher  Captain, Councilor

Tyndall, Robert  Mariner, Gunner

White, Benjamyn (Melungeon name)

Danyell

Stephen

 

 

Jamestown Colonists on the Resupply Ship, 1608

 

Source:  National Park Service.

 

Thomas Abbay

Jeffery Abbot

Rob Alberton

David Aphugh

Robert Barnes

William Bayley

Gabriel Beadle

John Beadle

William Beckwith

Richard Belfield

Henry Bell

William Bentley

John Bouth

Thomas Bradley

Richard Bristow

Richard Burket

Anne Burras

John Burras

James Burre

George Burton

William Cantrell

Nathaniell Causy

John Clarke

Thomas Coe

Henry Collings

Robert Cotton

Raleigh Crowhaw

John Cuderington

Robert Culter

John Dauxe

Thomas Dawse

Will Dawson

Richard Dole

William Dowman

David Ellis

Richard Featherstone

Thomas Field

Unknown Floud

George Forest

Unknown Forest

Thomas Forest

Thomas Fox

Thomas Gibson

Post Ginnat

Raymond Goodison

Richard Gradson

Thomas Graves

William Grivell

Edward Gurgana

Nicholas Handcock

Unknown Hardwyn

Harmon Harrison

George Hill

Unknown Hilliard

Thomas Hope

John Hoult

Unknown Hunt

Wil Johnson

Peter Keffer

Richard Killingbeck

Thomas Lavander

Timothy Leeds

Henry Leigh

John Lewes

Michael Lowick

Thomas Mallard

Thomas Maxes

William May

Unknown Michaell

Unknown Milman

Richard Milmer

Unknown Morley

Ralph Morton

Richard Mullinax

Rawland Nelstrop

John Nichols

Thomas Norton

Dionis O'Connor

William Perce

Francis Perkins

Thomas Phelps

Henry Philpot

Michaell Phittiplace

William Phittiplace

Peter Pory

Richard Pots

Unknown Powell

John Powell

John Prat

George Pretty

Richard Prodger

David Pugh

Christopher Rods

Unknown Rose

Unknown Russell

John Russell

William Russell

William Sambage

Richard Savage

Thomas Savage

Unknown Scot

Mathew Scrivener

Jeffrey Shortridge

Michaell Sicklemore

WIlliam Simons

John Spearman

William Spence

Dani Stallings

John Taverner

William Tayler

Lawrence Towtales

Daniel Tucker

Nicholas Ven

Unknown Vere

Richard Waldo

Unknown Walker

William Ward

James Watkins

Francis West

Unknown Wiles

Unknown Williams

Hugh Winne

Peter Winne

Hugh Wolleston

Richard Worley

George Yarington

William Younge

 

 

Sea Venture Passengers

 

Sources: 1) the Generall Historie of  the Bermudas by Captain John Smith 1624, reprint 1966; 2) Bermuda – Unintended Destination by Terry Tucker, 1982.

 

Sir Thomas Gates, Governor for Virginia

Sir George Somers, Admiral of the flotilla

Rev Richard, chaplain to the expedition

William Strachney, Secretary-elect of Virginia Company

Silvester Jourdain, of Lyme Regis, Dorset

Joseph Chard

Mr. Henry Shelly

Robert Walsingham, cockswain

Robert Frobisher, shipwright

Nicholas Bennit, carpenter

Francis Pearepoint

William Brian

William Martin

Henry Ravens, master mate; lost at sea when he sailed for help

Richard Knowles

Stephen Hopkins

Christopher Carter deserted and stayed behind on the island

Robert Waters who deserted and stayed behind on the island

Edward Waters

Samuel Sharpe

Henry Paine, shot to death for mutiny

Humfrey Reede

James Swift

Thomas Powell, cook

Edward Eason

Mistress Eason

Baby boy Bermuda Eason, born in Bermuda to the above

John Want

Mistress Horton

Elizabeth Persons, maid to Mistress Horton; married Thomas Powell while in Bermuda

Capt (Sir) George Yeardley, experienced veteran of the Dutch wars

Jeffrey Briars (died in Bermuda)

Richard Lewis, died in Bermuda

Edward Samuel, murdered by Robert Waters

William Hitchman, died in Bermuda

Thomas Whittingham, lost at sea with Ravens (above)

Edward Chard who stayed behind on the island

Captain Matthew Somers nephew and heir of Sir George, was aboard the “Swallow” on the same expedition

Robert Rich*, the brother of Sir Nathaniel Rich, a shareholder.  Was a soldier.  Returned to Bermuda 1617 and died there 1630.

Christopher Newport*, Captain of the Sea Venture, former privateer

Stephen Hopkins*

John Rolfe*, a young man in his twenties and traveling with his wife.  Their baby girl was born in Bermuda, christened Bermudas and died shortly thereafter.  His wife died shortly after reaching Virginia Spring 1610 and he married Pocahontas in April 1614.

Mistress Rolfe, first wife of above

*Royal Naval Dockyard Museum, Somerset, Bermuda (Tucker’s Note).

Additional persons listed as arriving at Jamestown in the Patience and the Deliverance (and therefore assumed to be aboard the Sea Venture when it wrecked at Bermuda). Source:  Cavaliers and Pioneers by Nell Marion Nugent (1963).

Henry Bagwell, aged 35 in Deliverance

Thomas Godby, aged 36 in the Deliverance

Edward Waters, aged 40 in the Patience

Elizabeth Joons, aged 30, servant

John Lytefoote

John Proctor

Virginia Historical Index by Swem

According to the original records, “As a results of the efforts, Sir Thomas Gates as sole and absolute Governor, with Sir George Summers, Admiral, and Capt. Newport, Vice Admiral of Virginia, and divers and other persons of ran four cke and quality in seven ships and two pinnaces, left Falmouth on the 8 of June 1609, and on the 24 day of July, 1609 they encountered a terrible storm that prevailed from Tuesday noone till Friday noone; that scattered the fleet and wrecked The Sea Venture (on July 28 1609) upon the island of Bermuda.”

Francis Michell lived at Elizabeth Citty February 1623 and Josuah Chard, aged 36, who came in the Sea Venture, May 1607.

Josuah Chard came in the SV

Purse and Person

The following came in the sea Ventura (from different pages)

p15 Henry Baguel

p22 Smauel Sharp

p30 John Lightfoote

p31 Capt. Wm Pierce

p32 George Grave

p38 John Procter

p140 Richard Buck sailed June 1609 with wife, Miss Langley and four Buck children.  Marooned for 9 months embarked for Virginia from Bermuda 10 May 1610.  Arrived in Jamestown 21 May 1610.  He was a minister.  The four Buck children, Elizabeth, Bridget and Bermuda were born and died while their parent marooned on Somers Island (1609-1610) Mara born in Virginia 1611 ward of brother-in-law, John Burrows.

p374 Stephen Hopkins left England 9 June 1609 among 150 persons cast ashore etc etc then it states “Although there is no complete list of the shipwrecked party which eventually reached Jamestown in the two pinnaces Patience and Deliverance, built on the islands, Hopkins did not remain on The Somers Islands and the conclusion is that the recalcitrant came to Virginia despite his known wish to return to England.  (He went back to England and came on the Mayflower in 1620 to Plymouth, Mass.

No further connection with the Colony.

p475 Wm Pierce

p507 John Rolfe and wife . 9 months on Somers Island.  Wife died on Somers Island or shortly after arriving in Virginia.

p590 Wm Strachey from Surrey England b 1572 on SV, marooned 9 mo etc

p650 Lieut. Edward Waters on SV and on to Virginia Patience.

p724 George Yeardley

Admiral Sir George Somers (1554-1610) was born near Lyme Regis in Dorset, England of modest circumstances.  At an early age he took to the sea, and as a captain of the Flibcote he captured Spanish booty, bringing it back to Dartmouth.  He became a large landowner by his early thirties.  In 1609 he received orders to command an expedition to Virginia, mortgaged his property and outfitted the Sea Venture.  He left no direct descendants.

 

 

Walloon and French Colonists to Virginia (1621)

 

Source: Sainsbury, Calendar, pp. 498-99.

According to the original records, the settlers swore, “We promise my Lord Ambassador of the Most Serene King of Great Britain to go and inhabit in Virginia, a land under his Majesty’s obedience, as soon as conveniently may be, and this under the conditions to be carried out in the articles we have communicated to the said Ambassador, and not otherwise, on the faith of which we have unanimously signed this present with our sign manual”.  The signatures and the calling of each are appended in the form of a round robin, and in a outer circle the person signing states whether he is married, and the number of his children.  The charter is endorsed by Sir Dudley Carleton.

Signature of such Walloons and French as offer themselves to goe into Verginia”.  The names with an * have only signed their marks.  Total 227, including 55 men, 41 women, 129 children, and two servants.

Mousnier de la Montagne, medical student; marrying man

Mousnier de la Montagne, apothecary and surgeon; marrying man

Jacque Conne, tiller of the earth; wife and two children

Henry Lambert, woolen draper; wife

*George Beava, porter; wife and one child

Michel Du Pon, hatter; wife and two children

Jan Bullt, labourer; wife and four children

Paul de Pasar, weaver; wife and two children

Antoine Grenier, gardener; wife

Jean Gourdeman, labourer; wife and five children

Jean Campion, wool carder; wife and four children

*Jan De La Met, labourer; young man

*Antoine Martin’ wife and one child

Francois Fourdrin, leather dresser; young man

*Jan Leca, labourer; wife and five children

Theodore Dufour, draper; wife and two children

*Gillian Broque, labourer; young man

George Wauter, musician; wife and four children

*Jan Sage, serge maker; wife and six children

*Marie Flit, in the name of her husband, a miller; wife and two children

P. Gantois, student in theology; young man

Jacques de Lecheilles, brewer; marrying man

*Jan Le Rou, printer; wife and six children

*Jan de Croy, sawyer; wife and five children

*Charles Chancy, labourer; wife and two children

*Francois Clitdeu, labourer; wife and five children

*Phillippe Campion, draper; wife and one child

*Robert Broque, labourer; young man

Philip De le Mer, carpenter; young man

*Jeanne Martin; young girl

Pierre Cornille, vine-dresser; young man

Jan de Carpentry, labourer; wife and two children

*Martin de Carpentier, brass founder; young man

Thomas Farnarcque, locksmith; wife and seven children

Pierre Gaspar

*Gregoire Le Juene, shoemaker; wife and four children

Martin Framerie, musician; wife and one child

Pierre Quesnee, brewer; marrying man

Pontus Le Gean, bolting-cloth weaver; wife and three children

*Barthelemy Digaud, sawyer; wife and eight children

Jesse de Foprest. Duer’ wife and five children

*Nicholas De la Marlier, dyer; wife and two children

*Jan Damont, labourer; wife

*Jan Gille, labourer; wife and three children

*Jan de Trou, wool carder; wife and five children

Philippe Maton, dyer, and two servants; wife and five children

Anthoine de Lielate, vinedresser; wife and four children

Ernou Catoir, wool carder; wife and five children

Anthoin Desendre, labourer; wife and one child

Agel de Crepy, shuttle worker; wife and four children

*Adrian Barbe, dyer; wife and four children
*Michel Leusier, cloth weaver; wife and one child
*Jerome Le Roy, cloth weaver; wife and four children
*Claude Ghiselin, tailor; young man
*Jan de Crenne, glass maker? (fritteur); wife and one child
*Louis Broque, labourer; wife and two children

More Settlers from Various Sources

According to the records, in 1635, in addition to those before-mentioned were Jonas Austin, Nicholas Baker, Clement Bates Richard Betscome, Benjamin Bozworth, William Buckland, James Cade, Anthony Cooper, John Cutler, John Farrow, Daniel Fop, Jarvice Gould, Wm. Hersey, Nicholas Hodsdin, Thos. Johnson, Andrew Lane, Wm. Large, Thomas Loring, George Ludkin, Jeremy Morse, William Nolton, John Otis, David Phippeny, John Palmer, John Porter, Henry Rust, John Smart, Francis Smith (or Smyth), John Strong, Henry Tuttil, William Walton, Thomas Andrews, William Arnall, George Bacon, Nathaniel Baker, Thomas Collier, George Lane, George Marsh, Abraham Martin, Nathaniel Peck, Richard Osborn, Thomas Wakely, Thomas Gill, Richard Ibrook, William Cockerum, William Cockerill, John Fearing, John Tucker.

Moreover, in 1636 were John Beal, senior, Anthony Eames, Thomas Hammond, Joseph Hull, Richard Jones, Nicholas Lobdin, Richard Langer, John Leavitt, Thomas Lincoln, Jr., miller, Thomas Lincoln, cooper, Adam Mott, Thomas Minard, John Parker, George Russell, William Sprague, George Strange, Thomas Underwood, Samuel Ward, Ralph Woodward, John Winchester, William Walker.

In 1637 were Thomas Barnes, Josiah Cobbit, Thomas Chaffe, Thomas Clapp, William Carlslye (or Carsly), Thomas Dimock, Vinton Dreuce, Thomas Hett, Thomas Joshlin, Aaron Ludkin, John Morrick, Thomas Nichols, Thomas Paynter, Edmund Pitts, Joseph Phippeny, Thomas Shave, Ralph Smith, Thomas Turner, John Tower, Joseph Underwood, William Ludkin, Jonathan Bozworth.

In 1638 there was a considerable increase of the number of settlers.  Among them were Mr. Robert Peck, Joseph Peck, Edward Gilman, John Foulsham, Henry Chamberlain, Stephen Gates, George Knights, Thomas Cooper, Matthew Cushing, John Beal, Jr., Francis James, Philip James, James Buck, Stephen Payne, William Pitts, Edward Michell, John Sutton, Stephen Lincoln, Samuel Parker, Thomas Lincoln, Jeremiah Moore, Mr. Henry Smith, Bozoan Allen, Matthew Hawke, William Ripley.

According to our sources, all of those preceding, who came to this country in 1638, took passage in the ship Diligent, of Ipswich, John Martin, master.  In addition to these, the following named persons received grants of land in the year 1638, viz.: John Buck, John Benson, Thomas Jones, Thomas Lawrence, John Stephens, John Stodder, Widow Martha Wilder, Thomas Thaxter.

In 1639 Anthony Hilliard and John Prince received grants of land.  The name of Hewett (Huet) and Liford, are mentioned in Hobart’s Diary, in that year, and in the Diary the followings names are first found in the respective years mentioned; in 1646, Burr, in 1647, James Whiton; in 1649, John Lazell, Samuel Stowell in 1653, Garnett and Canterbury.

Passengers on the Abraham Bound from London, England, to Virginia in 1635,

John Barker (perhaps an error for Barber), Master, Arranged by First Name, Surname and Age.

Source:  http://olivetreegenealogy.com/ships/tove_abraham1635.shtml

 

Tobie Sylbie 20

Robert Harrison 32

Willm Lawrence 22

John Johnson 35

W. Fisher 25

Steeven Taylor 17

Tho: Penford 30

Wm Smith 25

Tho: Archdin 18

Rich Morris 17

Walter Piggott 19

Rich Watkyns 20

Jo: Brunch 13

Jo: Clark 20

Gabriell Thomas 30

David Jones 21

Alexander Maddox 22

Francis Tippsley 17

Emanuell Davies 19

W=Williams 25

Roger Matthews 28

Jo: Britton 23

George Preston 20

Robert Toulban 23

Henry Dobell 20

George Brewett 18

Francis Stanely 23

Willm Freeman 46

Edward Griffth 33

Willm Manton 30

Owen Williams 40

Tho: Flower 32

Jo: Bullar 32

Jo: Clanton 26

Alexander Symes 19

Anto Parkhurst 42

Jo” Hill 36

Alexander Gregorie 24

Martin Westlink 20

Patrick Wood 24

Tho: Kedby 25

Riger Greene 24

Will= Downs 24

Jo: Burnett 24

Tho: Allen 31

Simon Farrell 19

Tho: Clements 30

Wm Hunt 20

Kathryn Adwell 33

The David from England to Virginia 1635

“The under-written Names are to be transported to Virginea, Inbarqued in the “David,” Jo. Hogg, Master, have been examined by the minister of Gravesend, etc.”

Edward Browne 25

Samuel Troope 17

Wm Hatton 23

Daniel Bacon 30

Robert Alsopp 18

Teddar Jones 30

Tho: Siggins 18

Abell Dexter 25

Rich Caton 26

Henry Spicer 28

Tho: Granger 19

Jo: Bonfilly 21

Roger Mannington 14

Josua Chanbers 17

Henry Melton 23

Davod Lloyd 30

Donough Gornes 27

Geo: Butler 27

Addan Nunnick 25

Jo: Stann 27

Edward Spicer 18

Jo: Felding 19

Jo: Morris 26

Richard Brookes 30

Robert Barron 18

Jonathan Barnes 22

Henry kendall 17

Tho: Poulter 31

Jo: Lamb 22

Tho: Nunnick 22

Jo: Steevens 19

Edward Crabtree 20

Wm Barber 17

Ann Beeford 25

Martha Potter 20

Gurtred Lovett 18

Jane Jennings 25

Margaret Bole 30

Mary Rogers 20

margaret  Walker 20

Freese Brooran 20

Eliza Jones 20

The Bonaventure (1635)

Richard Doll 25

Tho: Perry 34

Uxor Dorothy 26

Ben: Perry

Mary Carlton 23

Abram Silvester 40

Tho: Belton

Richard Champion 1

Richard Champion 1

Abram Silvester 14

Elizabeth Nanisk 20

Jo Atkinson 30

Rich: Hore 24

Ralph Nichelson 20

Robert More 20

Joan Nubold 20

Tho: Hebden 20

Willm Sayer 58

Brazil Brooke 20

Robert Perry 40

Charles Hillard 22

Edward Clark 30

Jo: Ogell 28

Richard Hargrave 20

Jo: Anderson 20

Francis Spence 23

John Lewes 23

Richard Hughes 19

John Clark 19

Wm Guy 18

John Burd 18

James Redding 19

Richard Cooper 18

Andrew Jefferies 24

Wm Munday

Arthur Howell 20

Jo: Abby 22

James Moyser 28

Mathew Marshall 30

Wm Smith 20

Garrett Riley 24

Miles Riley 20

Willm Burch 19

Peter Dole 20

James Metcalf 22

Margerie Furbredd 20

Jo: Underwood 23

Robert Luck 25

John Wood 23

Waltr Morgan 23

Henrie Irish 16

George Greene 20

Henry Quinton 20

Jo: Bryan 25

Robert Payton 25

Tho: Symonds 27

Michell Browne 35

Jo: Hodges 37

Jo: Edmonds 16

Garrett Pownder 19

Jo: Wise 28

Henry Dunnell 23

Symon Kenneday 20

Tho: Hyet 22

Tho: James 20

Jo: Sotterfeyth 24

Emannell Bomer 18

Leonard Wetherfield 17

James Luckbarrowe 20

Tho: singer 18

Jesper Withy 21

Robert Kersley 22

Jo: Springall 18

Tho: Jessupp 18

James Perkyns 42

Daniell Greene 24

Wm Hutton 24

Jo: Wilkinson 19

Hugh Garland 20

Richard Spencer 18

Humfrey Topsall 24

Tho: Stanton 20

John Fountaine 18

Henry Redding 22

Loughten Bosteck 16

John Russell 19

Tho: Ridgley 23

Robert Harris 19

Willm Mason 10

Victor Derrick 23

John Bamford 28

Margaret Huntley 20

Geo: Session 40

Jo: Cooke 47

Tho: Townson 26

Tho: Parson 30

Tho:Goodman 25

Philip Connor 21

Launcelot Pyrce 21

Uxor Thomazin 18

Kat: Yates 19

Alveryn Cowper 20

Jo: Dunnell 26

Leonard Evans 22

Tho: Anderson 28

Edward Cranfield 18

Jo: Baggley 14

Tho: Smith 14

Willm Weston 30

Tho: Townsend 14

Edward Davies 25

Mary Saunders 26

Jane Chambers 23

Margaret Maddocks 21

Roger Sturdevant 21

John Wigg 24

John Greenwood 16

Andrew Dunton 38

John Wise 30

Wm Hudson 32

Tho: Edmborough 37

John Hill 50

Henry Rogers 30

Robert Smithson 23

Nics Harvey 30

James Grafton 22

Daniell Daniell 18

Reginell Hawes 25

Geo: Burlington 20

Jo: Hutchinson 22

James Crane 17

Richard Hurman 20

Sam: Ashley 19

Geo: Burlingham 20

Elizabeth Jackson 17

Sara Turner 20

Mary Ashley 24

 

Huguenot Refugees on Board Ship “Mary and Ann”, August 12, 1700 Virginia, James City.

 

Pierre Delome, et sa  femme

Marguerite Sene, et sa fille

Magdalaine Mertle

Jean Vidau

Jean Menager et Jean Lesnard

Estienne Badouet

Pierre Morrisct

Jedron Chamboux et sa femme

Jean Farry et Jerome Dumas

Jean Tardieu

Jean Moreau

Jaques Roy, et sa femme

Abraham Sablet, et des deux enfants

Quintin Chastatain et Michael Roux

Jean Quictet, sa femme and trios enfants

Henry Cabanis, sa femme et un enfant

Jaques Sayte

Jean Boisson

Francois Bosse

Teertulien Sehult, et sa femme et deux enfants

Pierre Lauret

Jean Roger

Pierre Chastain, a femme et cinq enfants

Philippe Duvivier

Pierre Nace, sa femme et leur deux filles

Francois Clere

Symon Sardin

Sourbragon, et Jacques Nicolay

Pierre Mallet

Francoise Coupet

Jean Oger, sa femme et trios enfants

Jane or Jean Saye

Elizabet Angeliere

Jean et Claude Mallfant, avec leur mere

Isaac Chabanas, sou fils, et Catharine Bomard

Estinne Chastain

Adam Vignes

Jean Fouchie

Francoise Sassin

Andre Cochet

Jean Gaury, sa femme et un enfant

Pierre Gaury, sa femme et un enfant

Pierre Perrut, et sa femme

Isaac Panetier

Jean Parransos sa seur

Elie Tremson, sa femme

Elizabeth Tignac

Antoine Trouillard

Jean Bourru et Jean Bouchet

Jaques Boyes

Elizabet Migot

Catherine Godwal

Pierre la Courru

Jean et Michell Cautepie, sa femme et deux enfants

Jaques Broret, sa femme et deux enfants

Abraham Moulin et sa femme

Francois Billot

Pierre Comte

Ettienne Guevin

Rene Massoneau

Francois Du Tartre

Isaac Verry

Jean Parmentier

David Thonitier et sa femme

Moyse Lewreau

Pierre Tillou

Marie Levesque

Jean Constantin

Claud Berdon sa femme

Jean Imbert, et sa femme

Elizabeth Fleury

Looys du Pyn

Jaques Richard, et sa femme

Adam et Marie Prevost

Jaques Viras, et sa femme

Jawues Brouse, sou enfant

Pierre Cornu

Louiss Bon

Isaac Fordet

Jean Pepre

Jean Gaillard et son fils

Anthonie Matton, et sa femme

John Lucadou et sa femme

Louiss Orange, sa femme et un enfant

Daniel Taure, et deux enfants

Pierre Cupper

Daniel Roy

Magdelain Gigou

Pierre Grelet

Jean Jovany, sa femme, deux enfnans

Pierre Ferrier, sa femme, un enfant

La vefve faure et quatre enfants

Isaac Arnaud, et sa femme

Pierre Chantanier, sa femme et son pere

Jaen Fonasse

Jaques Bibbeau

Jean March

Catherine Billot

Marie et Symon Jourdon

Abraham Menot

Timothy Moul, sa femme un enfant

Jean Savin sa femme un enfant

Jean Sargeaton sa femme un enfant

Claude Philipe, et sa femme

Gabriel Sturter

Pierre de Corne

Helen Trubyer

 

 

 

List of Passengers from London to James River in Virginia Inbarqued in the Ship ye “Peter and Anthony,” Galley of London, Daniel Perreau, Commander (viz’t) 20th of Sept. 1700

Jean Pilard

Estienne Ocosnad (Turkish)?

Abraham Remis sa femme = Ramy

Jean Le Franc Vudurand

Daniel Maison Dieu

Pierre Baudry

David Menestrier

Jacob Fleurnoir, sa femme 2 garsons & 2 fille avid Blevet sa femme & 6 enfants

Elizabeth Lemat

Abraham Le Foix sa femme & 4 enfants

Jean Aunant, sa femme & un fille

Jean Genge de Melvis

Monsieur Je Joux, minister

Francois de Launay, & un enfants

Gaspart, sa femme & 7 enfants

Jacques Corbell

Jacob Capen

Isaac Iroc (Iraq?)

Elie Gastand

Anthonie Boignard

Nicholas Mare, sa femme & 2 enfants

Jaques Feuillet & sa femme.

Pierre Sarazin

Jean Perrachou

Phillippe Claude

Simon Hugault

Samuel Barrel

Gaspar Gueruer sa femme & 3 enfants

Jean Soulegre

Jean Morroe (possibly Moreau)

Louis Desfontaine & sa femme

Pierre Masset

Solomon Jourdan

Estienne Chabran, sa femme

Susanne Soblet & 3 enfants

Jean Hugon

Michel Michel

Mheodore de Rousseau

Pierre Cavalier, sa femme & un garson

Pierre Anthonie Eupins

Isaac Le ffeure (now Lefew in Virginia)

Jean Martain

Pierre Renaudd

Marthien Roussel

Augustin Coullard

Jean Coullard

Jaques du Crow, sa femme & une fille

Paul Laurion

Moise Broc.

Jean Pierre Bondurand[5]

Pierre La Badic

Jean Bossard, sa femme & 3 enfants

Guillaume Rullett

Anthony Gioudar

Anne Carbonnet & un enfant

Guillemme Guervot, sa femme & un garson

Louis Robert, & un fille

Estienne Tauvin, sa femme & 2 enfants

Paul Castiche

Jean Mazeris

Noel Delamarre sa femme & un fille

Jean Le Vilain

Jean Marisset

Jean Maillard & 3 enfants

Thimotthree Roux

Gaspart Guamondet & sa femme

Daniel Rogier

Pierre Gosfand

Soloman Ormund

Louis Geoffray

Maize Veneuil, sa femme & 5 enfants

Joseph Oliver (probably from Niort, in Poitou)

Jaques Faucher

Pierre La Grand, sa femme & 5 enfants

Pierre Prevol (Prevat, Prevatte[6])

Daniel Riches

Francis Clapie

Jacob Riche, sa femme & un enfants

Mathier Passedoit

Pierre Hiuert

Michel Fournet, sa femme & deux enfants

Jean Monnicat

Simon Faucher

Jean Combelle



[1] Copies of this list in public records as all the following ones in this Appendix and elsewhere in our book are legion in scholarly and popular literature. As far as we are informed they do not represent copyright materials. Out of convenience, we have followed in this instance the list provided by the National Park Service. Others are published all over the Internet. We make no claim that the list provided here is original, authoritative or definitive. At the same time, we have attempted to harmonize different versions and acknowledge important sources. If anyone holds the copyright to this or similar material used by us, we would appreciate hearing so that we can make the correction.  –The Authors.
[2] The original group came in May 1607, the first supply group in January 1608, and the second supply group in the fall 1608. Occupations are given with original spellings. List is based on the records of John Smith, "Proceedings of the English Colony in Virginia" and Generall Historie. The record states there were “diverse others to the number of 105.”
[3] This is the title of the facsimile parchment record in my possession.
[4] There were 144 persons in the expedition including the one hundred five who remained in Virginia.
[5] One of the authors’ ancestors from Provence, said to have been of extremely dark appearance. The surname was probably originally a Spanish compound one, Bon-Durante, a form of the “good name” (see App. C). Durands/Durants were a prominent Sephardic family of rabbis, physicians and scholars who settled mostly in Provence, Marseilles, Majorca and Morocco after the Expulsion of 1492 (Faiguenboim et al 244), where the Bondurants originated. Jean Pierre, the emigrant, was an apothecary and vintner by profession. His mother was Gabrielle Barjon (“son of Jean”). A Barjon relative was one of the organizers of the mass escape from France, which led the Huguenots through Switzerland, Germany and finally, London, to the New World. Jean Pierre’s wife, Rhoda Faur (Anglicized as Ford), also bore a Sephardic surname (Faiguenboim et al 256). The Bondurant family can be traced back to Génolhac, département Gard, France, to the early sixteenth century, but not before—as we have seen, often a clue invoking the date 1492. They were probably relatively new arrival from Inquisitorial Spain. In Virginia, the Bondurants intermarried again and again with Agee, Maxey, Radford and Ford cousins, a common crypto-Jewish trait.
[6] Ancestor of co-author’s spouse, Teresa Panther-Yates. The family intermarried with Tuscarora and Cherokee Indians and was later known as Black Dutch.



      
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Was Your Colonial Forebear Jewish?

Monday, April 21, 2014


One of the remarkable suggestions in our book Jews and Muslims in British Colonial America (McFarland 2012) was that both the First Families of Virginia and Pilgrim Mothers and Fathers of Massachusetts included many colonists of Jewish ancestry (usually Sephardic). There were, in fact, Jews, ex-Jews and crypto-Jews (and Muslims and crypto-Muslims) hidden in the ship passenger lists and early tax rolls of all thirteen colonies, with Georgia (chapter 9) proposed to be the "most Jewish." 

We give here the index from that book, the second volume in a series that began with When Scotland Was Jewish (2007) and concludes next month with the publication of The Early Jews and Muslims of England and Wales:  A Genetic and Genealogical History. 

Are any of your colonial ancestors listed? It is likely they bore Jewish ancestry, even if they did not practice Judaism and presented themselves as Christian. In future blogs, we will reproduce other colonist roisters from the appendices of the book, which cover Virginia to Georgia. Below is the master index to page numbers, which does not pick up every single name but does note any name discussed or mentioned in the body of the text. 

Abbadie  150

Abbey  68

Abdelloe  178

Abel/Abell 66, 116

Abennomen  165

Abercorn  165

Abercromby  147

Aberdaun  165

Aberdeen  51, 58, 170, 182

Aboab  39

Abraham/Abrahams  117-18, 132, 134

Abrahamsen  91

academies  186

Acker/Ackerman  112

Acker/Acre  114, 116

Acosta  103

Ada  177

Adair  36, 136-38, 146, 160

Adams/Addams   43, 66, 67, 103, 111, 124, 185

Adar  175

Adel/Adela  177

Adela  177

Adelaide  177

Adeline  155, 177

Aden  171

Adjai  167

Adkins  36, 137

Adye  167

Aegler  118

Agar  66

Aguilar  35

Ahiman Rezon, The  185

Aithcock  51

Alabama  161, 188

Alamza  154

Albany  83, 92, 96-98

Albigensians  114, 181

Albright  117, 121

Alcade  178

Aleef/Alif  124

Alen, van  100

Alexander  36, 43, 80, 90, 98, 100, 111, 187

Alfari/Alferry  117

Algeier  116

Algeria  116, 164

Alida  100

aliyah  79

Alkabetz, Shlomo Halevi  68

Allee/Ali  124

Alleman  118

Allen  43, 116, 147

Almora  30

Alpheus  185

Alsace-Lorraine  114, 118, 151, 160, 166

Amadas, Philip  14, 23,  47

Amaker  146

Amatis  163

Ames  67, 111, 114

Amesbury, Mass.  78, 81

Amir  70, 185

Amish  114, 119

Amma  114

Amman  114, 119

Ammon  see  Hammon

Amory  146

Amos  67

Amsterdam  65, 83-91, 141

Anatta  117

Anderson  162

Andover, Mass.  70

Andrews/Andrus  40, 43, 53

Andronicus  67

Ane, de  185

Angelo  134

Anglo-Saxon  60, 99

Angola Neck  124

Annon  132

Ansegisele  177

Anthon/Anthony  13, 55, 91

Antill  99

Antwerp  85

Apollonius of Tyana  179

Apunkshunnubbee  161

Aquila  125, 128

Aquitaine  141

Arabia  117

Arabic  154

Araminta  125

Aras  112

Arawak Indians  31

Arbell, Mordecai  29, 40-41, 85, 169

Arbo  117

Arcajah  154

Archelaus  171

Archer, Gabriel  51

Aree/Arey  124

Aretas  77

Argall, Samuel  52

Armor  111

Arnau  43

Arnaut  91

Arnett  186

Arnold  100; Benedict  116, 184

Arnulf of Herstal  177

Arrobas  169

Arthur  167, 178

Arundel   23, 47

Asahal  171

Ascham, Roger  21

Ascough  11

Asenith/Seneth  155

Ash/Ashe  76, 116, 186

Ashcom  132

Ashfield  99

Ashler  118

Ashley  129

Ashley-Cooper, Anthony  145, 162

Ashmole, Elias  21, 173-75, 177-79, 181, 185, 186

Ashmolean Museum  173

Ashmore  167

Ashton  116

Asians  28, 33

Askew  111

Astor:  103; John Jacob 56

Athelstone  175

Athens  117

Athias  40

Atkin  58

Attakullakulla  148, 163

Attia  174

Aubry  47

Augusta, Ga.  162, 165, 169-70

Augustein  118

Austin  36, 77, 126, 148

Austria  119

Auvergne  140

Avarilla  171

Averroism  14

Avicenna  181

Avignon  141

Avila  30, 147

Ayllon, de  144

Aymand  147

Aynon  175

Ayr  142

Ayrault  142

Ayres  126

Azariah  155

Azikiwe, Nnamdi  5

Azores  15, 28-29

Aztec Indians 33-34

Baasz  112

Babylon  24

Babylonian  140

Baca  34

Bacchus  175, 177

Backhouse  177

Backshell  167

Bacon:  181, Francis  179-180

Bacquencourt, de  151

Badenooon  165

Baeck  128

Baecksel  167

Bagge  117

Baggett  36

Bagley  111

Bagnall  68

Bagoh  178

Bagot  178

Bagsell  54

Bailleux, de  150

Bailly  150

Bain  170

Baldwin/Baudoin  116

Ball  43, 57, 186

Ballard  66

Baltimore  123, 136-37

Bamberg  166

banks 74

Banos  30

Baptists  68, 166

Barak  117; see also Baruch

Baram  53

Barbados  41, 55, 86, 95-96, 99, 132, 145

Barbalha  142

Barbauld  142; see also Barbo

Barbeaux  167

Barberie  97

Barbero, Alessandro  177

Barbo  167

Barbot  143

Barentsen  91

Barfoot  51

Barksdale  167

Barlow, Arthur  14, 16, 47

Barnard  167

Barne/Barney  19, 66, 125, 128

Barnes  137, 179

Barnett  42, 43, 100

Baron/Barron  118

Barr  114, 118

Barratt  185

Barre  150

Barrett 18, 43, 184

Barriers  137

Barrow  68

Barruck  127, 150

Barry  111

Barsham  67

Bartholomaeie  112

Barton  143

Baruch/ Baroch  68, 109, 114, 116, 167

Basanier, Martin  46

Basque  178

Bass/Basse  53, 67, 185

Bassett  68, 70

Bat  112

Batista  30

Batt  110

Batz  150

Bavaria  166

Bayer, Henry G.  89

Bayley  150

Bayly/Bailey  111

Bayonne  141

Bazill/Basil  134, 143

Bea/Bee  91, 148

Beale  148

Beamer/Beamor  170

Bean  170

Beares/Bears  112

Beauchamp  63, 68, 126

Beaudel  161

Bechtelll  117

Beck  128

Bedat, du  152

Beekman  97-98, 103

Beford  162

Begga  177

Beit Shean  185

Belcastel  150

Belcher  181

Belgians  89

Belitha  162

Bell  51, 78, 138

Bella/Bellah  115

Bellew  23

Bellington  108

Belmonte/Bellomont  95, 103

Ben Israel, Menasseh  9, 29, 39, 47, 84

Benamour  170

Benarus, Luna  29

Bendal  67

Bender  118

Benejah  171

Benetez  28

Benham  67

Benison  167

Benitez  31

Benjamin  97, 132, 178

Bennett  53, 184

Benoni  132

Bensalem  181

Bensaudes  29

Bentzel  114

Benzet  117

Benzien  117

Benzion  117

Berbers  26-27, 39, 117, 128, 153, 167

Berenson  91

Beriah  67

Berkeley  53

Berkshire County, Pa.  116

Bermejo, Juan Rodriguez  8

Bernal  31

Bernard  143

Bernard/Bernhard  41, 167

Berry  80

Bertonneau  143

Besly  143

Bessor  179

Beth Elohim Congregation  157

Bethany  170

Bethel  116

Bethencourt, Juan de  27

Bethia  78

Bethlehem  174

Bethulia  111

Betton  185

Beverhoudt, van  168

Beverley, Robert  56

Beverly, Mass.  70

Bevis Marks  164, 188

Bey  89

Bicker  86

Bidardike  112

Biddle  103

Biggs  53

Bilhah  184

Billington  106

Birchum/Berghoum  155

Bird/Byrd  55-57, 85, 95, 99, 104

Birmingham  125

Bises/Beziz  178

Black  85

Black Dutch  161

Black Fox  120, 137, 187

Black Irish  161

Blackall  96

Blackheaded Cooper, chief  188

Blackwell  43

Blaeu, Joan  84

Blair  184

Blakiston  134

Blanchan  89

Blanchard  185

Bland  77

Blandford-Bute Lodge  185

Blaquire  150

Blatser  100

Bless  114

Blessing  70

Blevins  36, 137, 171

Bloom  94

Bloomart  86

Bluett  53

Blum  115

Boas  179, 184

Bodell  161

Bogomils  114

Bohun, Lawrence, Dr.  52

Boileau  150

Bois, du  88

Boleyn   20

Bolivar  125

Bomonzore  178

Bon  125

Bond  186; see also Bondi

Bondi/Biondi  162

Bondurant  170

Boniten  47

Bonneau  146

Bonnell  150

Bonney  79

Bono  125

Book of Creation, The  179

Boone  6, 36, 40, 51, 52, 56, 120, 125, 136, 137, 148, 161, 171-72, 186

Booth  132

Boozer  146

Bordeaux  141, 146, 150

Borden  99

Borges  47, 167

Borough/Boroughs  51, 150

Bose, du  146

Bosomworth  167

Boston  82

Boude  186

Boudinot  91, 184

Bouherar  150

Boules  117

Bouquett  91

Bourquin  167

Boutellier  167

Bowdle  161-62, 167

Bowen  98, 187

Bower  128

Bowling  162, 167

Bowyer  174-74

Brabant  167

Bradby  51

Bradford, William  62-64, 77, 86

Bradstreet  70

Brandenburg  178

Brandner  166

Brandon  41, 43, 164

Brashear  137

Brasier  91

Brassey  109

Bratton  146

Braund, Kathryn Holland  169

Braveboy  51

Brazil  86, 91, 103, 144, 154

Bremen  42

Bremige  47

Brenneiss  118

Brereton  130

Bresteede  90

Brewer  174

Brewington  50

Brewster  65-66

Brezca  125

Bright  67

Brimage  186

Brisbee  78

Briscoe  125-26

Bristol  11, 53-54, 105-8

Brocas  150

Brock/Brocke  54

Brook/Brooke  57, 109

Broom  184

Broucard  89

Broussee  54

Brouwer  89

Browewich  47

Brown, Rae & Company  169

Brown/Browne  36, 41, 43, 66, 67, 72, 132, 144, 171, 187

Bruce  43, 54

Brugh, van  98

Brun, Le  143

Brusie  100

Bryan/Bryant  43, 136, 138

Buatt  114

Bubar/Buber  112

Buchanan  147

Buckman  112

Bucks County, Pa.  117-18

Budaeus  186

Budocushyde  18

Buen/Bueno  91, 125

Buffalo Creek, N.C.  185

Buffam  68

Bulgar  67

Bull  148

Bulloch/Bullock  102, 147

Bunch  36

Bundy  162

Bunning  170

Buntin  112

Burgeois, de  151

Burges/Burgess  151, 167

Burke  120, 138

Burnett  51, 137

Burns, Rinnah Bonnie  119

Burr  67

Burton  162

Bus, de  114

Bush  43

Buss, Wanda Looney  187

Bute  185

Butler  167, 178

Buych  83

Buys  89

Byrd, William  55-56, 58

Bysshe  178

cabala  15, 20, 114, 174-76, 179, 184, 185

Cabarrus  186

Cabot  80

Cadiz  112, 117

Cadwalader  112, 186

Caen  95, 153

Caillemotte, La  151

Calais  88-89

Calderon  31

Caldwell  36, 146, 167, 170

Calef  67

Calhoun  146

Callahan  43

Calvert  123

Calvinists  141

Calwell  see  Caldwell

Cambon  151

Cambridge University  20-21, 95

Cammell  134

Campanal  92

Campbell  36, 43, 120, 148, 184

Camuse/Camus  164, 167

Canaan  113

Canaan  185

Canada  42, 85

Canada/Candia/Candiani/Candi  124

Canary Islands  18, 27-28, 47

Candelaria  31

Candy  168

Canide  117

Cannon  185

Canoday  see Canada

Canter/Cantor  113, 117, 120

Cantrell  142

Cape Girardeau  160

Capelle/Cappell  114, 184

Capen  67

Cappe  41, 53

Carballo  30

Card  53

Cardozo  84

Carew   13

Carey/Cary  112, 124

Caribbean  40-42, 66, 68-70, 85-87, 94, 146, 167-69

Carmuk  117

Carnall  124

Carnegie  103

Carolinas  36, 171; see also North Carolina; South Carolina

Carow  102

Carpenter/Carpentier  162

Carre  142, 151

Carrier  72

Carroll  184

Carter  36, 43, 50, 57

Carteret  106

Cartier  43

Carvajal  34, 47

Casaubon  179

Caselick  127

Casier  88-89

Cassandra  125, 171

Cassas, Alberto de las  27

Cassel  43, 127

Casson  127

Castelin, John  19

Castile, Spain  117

Castill  117

Catalonia  140

Catawba Indians  55

Cathars  114, 179, 181

Caton  67, 114

Cats  90

Caudill  36

Causey  53

Cavendish, Thomas  14, 23, 47

Cecil, William (1st Baron Burghley)  19, 21

Cenus Rosa  155

Cervantes  33

Chaffin  36, 136

Chaigneau  151

Chaim  117; see also Haim/Haym

Chamberlaine  151

Champagne  151

Champernoun   12, 18

Chaplin  53

Chapman  53, 112, 117, 185

Charlemagne  76, 176-77

Charles  II  106, 181

Charles Martel  175-77

Charlestown  187

Charpeles  116

Chartier, Martin   120

Chase  103

Chauny, Picardy  167

Chavez  34

Chavez, Angelico  34

Chavis  51

Cheever  67

Cheke, John  21, 22

Chelsea  72-73

Chenevix  151

Cherokee Indians  36, 55, 120, 137-38, 147-48, 167, 170, 187-88

Cherouse  168

Cherry  185

Chesebrough  67

Cheshire  129-30

Cheson  43

Chessed  132

Chester County, Pa.  116-17

Chew  135

Chickamauga  188

Chickasaw Indians  160-61, 169

Childe, Robert  178

China  56, 83, 85, 163

Chloe  171

Choctaw Indians  160-61

Chodowiesky, Johann  179

Choice of Emblems  179

Christopher  137

Christy  36

Chupa  116

Churton, Tobias  173, 178

Ciboney Indians  29

circumcision  178

citrus  28, 153

Clapp  68

Clark/Clarke   13, 43, 47, 69, 124, 167, 184, 187

Clarkson  98

Claypoole  108

Clewis  50

Cline  119

Cloeraly  50

Clopper  90

Cloyes  70

Clymer  74

Cobb  50

Coburg  166

Cock/Cocke  73, 117

Coen  85, 100

Coerten  89

Coeymans  100

Coffee  137, 167

Cogu  89

Cohaire  Indians  50

Cohan, George M.  43

Cohen  43, 57, 73, 85, 89, 100, 113, 118, 147, 162, 164, 170

Colden  99

Coligny  144

Colina  142

Collier  174

Collins   18, 36, 142, 167

Collop  51

Collot  151

Cologne  84

Colon  31; see also Columbus, Christopher

Columbus, Christopher  7-8, 27, 29, 31, 41

Columbus, Ga.  164

Comegys  127

Compagnie des Indes  159-60

Company for the Mines Royal  12

Comyns  148

Conant  68

Conellier, de la  148

Coney  67

Connecticut  184

Conraets  86

Constable  57

Constanta  66

Constitution  97, 185

Conversos  7, 9, 14, 17, 18, 21, 22, 24, 27, 29, 30, 34, 40, 43, 46, 49, 124, 141, 144

Cook/Cooke  128; Lewis 184

Cooper 13, 36, 43, 50, 90, 100, 103, 120, 125-26, 129, 137-38, 147-48, 161-62, 167, 171, 185-86

Copenhagen  119

Copland/Copeland  68, 183

Copper see Cooper

Coppyn  54

coral trade  83

Coram  162

Corbett  124

Cordes  146

Corey  71

Corgin  57

Cornell  100

Cornier  89

Cornwall  11-12, 15, 16, 23, 24

Coronell  100

Cortes, Hernan  33

Cortland/ Cortlandt/Courtlandt, van  94, 100, 103

Costa, de/da  29, 84, 147, 152, 158, 164, 185

Costas  56, 57, 136; see also Costa

Cothoneau  142

Cotman  128

Cotton  67

Coulon  142

Courland  87

Coursey  125

Courson  134

Courtong  see  Courtonne

Courtonne  167

Cousin/Cussen/Cousins  151

Cousseau  88-89

Cowan/Cowen  36, 113

Cowl/Cowell  102

Cox/Coxe  167, 170, 186

Craddock  66

Cramer  121

Crane  79

Cray  91

Creek Indians  148, 167, 170, 172

Creek Mary  164

Cressman  118

Cresson  89

Crispel  89

Croatians  48, 50

Crohan  118

Crommelin  97-98, 150, 154

Cromwell  48, 137; Oliver 9, 96

Cross  118, 167

Crosse, Sir Robert  15

Crothaire  153

Crouch  126

Crowder  53

Cruger  98, 115

Cruz  30, 34, 167

Cuba  29-31

Cumberford  134

Cumberland Gap  36

Cumbo  51

Cummings/Cummins  148

Cuntz  see Koons/Kuntz

Curacao  98

Currier  81

Cushman  77

Cussen see Cousin

Custis  56, 57, 136

Cuyler  98

Cyprus  89, 108

Cyrus  112

Czech  53

Czepler  121

Dakes  124

Dalbo  117

Dale, Thomas, Sir  52

Damaris  66

Damen  89

Dana  67

Danan/Danna  155

Dandridge  59

Dane  70

Danforth  81

Danielsen  90

Danin  113

Dare  36, 50

Dare, Ananais  14

Dare, Virginia  50

Dargent  151

Darien  165, 167, 170

Darrah  117

Darrell  100

Dasher  166

Dashiell  128

Davenport  43, 137

David   11, 25, 35-36, 43, 66, 67, 91, 100, 109, 114, 177, 178

Davidson  115

Davies  99

Davis  43, 70, 119, 126, 128, 138, 170

Dawes  67, 184

Day  70, 116

Deane  185

Deborah  72

DeBrahm  170

Decker  100

Declaration of Independence  98, 183

Dee  14, 178; John 14, 21-22, 178-79

Defoe, Daniel  84, 167

Dela  177

Delancey  43, 94, 103, 115

Delano  63, 101-2

Delaware  88, 184; Lord  52

Delegal  167

Delgado  167

Delieben  187

Delmar, Jorge  29

Demarest  89

D’Embrun/D’Ambrain see Dombrain

Demery  51

Demetres/Demetrius  167

Denis  155

Denmark  119, 153, 169, 178

Denne  187; see also Denney; Dennie

Denney/Denny  137, 155-57, 185

Dennie  185

Derbyshire  78

Dericksen  89

Descartes, Rene  84

D’Esmiers  154

Destemple  167

Deval  165

Deveaux/Devaux  146, 148, 167

Devereux, Robert 20, 21

Devon 11-12, 23

Dewes/Dews  114; see also Dues

Diamond/Dyamond  117

Dias/Diaz  14, 18, 21, 28, 31, 70, 116, 126, 147; Pedro 14

Dicer  70

Dick  184

Dickinson  184

Dieppe  17

Digby  162

Dinah  116

Dinana  120

Dingasey  117

Dionysus  175, 185

Disharone  126

DNA  11-12, 16, 26-27, 29, 31, 33, 35-38, 72-73, 137

DNA Consultants  38

Dobb  137

Dobree  184

Dod/Dodd  114, 178

Dody  67

D’Olbreuse  154

Dolen  137

Doll  121

D’Olier  152

Dombrain  152

Dooly/Dooley  167

Dorcas  79, 126

Doty  66

Douai  167

Doublehead  120

Doubt  67

Doudel  114

Dougherty  170

Dourado, Fernaõ Vaz  15

Douw/Dow/Dowe  100

Drake, Sir Francis  15-16, 23, 47-48, 144

Draper  115

Drayton  148

Drelincourt  152

Dresler  167

dress and costume  60, 104-105

Drexel/Drexler/Drechsler  120

Driver  119

Droz  152

Duarte  30

Dubnow, Simon  64

Dubourdieu  152

Duenkel  114

Dues  167

Duesen, van  100

Duffe/Duffey  134, 184

Duffua  117

Dull, Keith  114-15

Dullea  167

Dumas  67

Dundas  115

DuPont  103

Duppa, Thomas, Sir  179

Duran/Durant  28, 34, 170

Durie/Dury  89, 152

Dussen, van der  148

Dutch East India Company  39, 83-84

Dutch West India Company  39, 85-86

Dutcher  100

Duval  152

Duycking/Duyckinck   90, 98

Duyou  89

Duyts  89

Dyck, van  88, 94

dyestuffs  83-84, 148

Dyott  178

Eachus  116

Earl Marshall of England  186

Earle  135

Eason/Jason  53

Eastey/Esty  68, 70

Easton  79

Eaton  66, 69, 106

Ebbing  91

Ebenezer, Ga.  165

Edaliah/Edeliah  124

Eder  119

Edinburgh  160, 182

Edna  177

Eelckens  85

Egypt  174-75, 187

Eida  177

El Mer  67

Elahmi  174

Elam  137

Eleazar  112

Elfe  184

Eli see Ely

Elias  174

Elijah  174

Eliot/Elliott  57, 132, 167, 184, 187

Elizabeth I  9, 11, 14, 17, 21, 22, 51, 63

Elkanah  77, 85, 112

Ellam  174

Ellard  156

Ellery  187

Ellis/Elles  43, 127, 162, 167, 185

Elne  140

Elphinstone/Elphinston  112, 168, 182

Elsasser  114

Elslegal  117

Ely/Eli  54, 112

Eman  178

Emanuel  165

Emerson  185

Emery  67

Emes  185

emir  185

Emmanuel  50

Encyclopedia of Southern Culture  160

Endelmann, Todd  42

Endicott, John  60, 66

Engel/Engles  85, 113, 119

England  127

English  66

Enoch  176

Episcopalians  184, 186

Erouard  142

Eshleman, Henry Frank  114

Esselsteen  100

Essex  70, 77

Estes  68

Esther  72, 116, 119, 124, 164

Etalka  177

Ethel  177

Etter  119

Etting  42, 43

Eveleth  70

Eyck, ten  100

Eycott  168

Eyles  162

Eyseck  114

Fabian  113

Facey/Facy; 185; John  23

Facit see Fawcett

Faddes  116

Faesch  166, 185

Fagan  117

Fahie  167, 169

Fahm  166

Fahnestock  120

Falco/Falcon/Falconer  127, 179

Falk  43

Falkner/Faulkner  127

Fanu, Le  153

Fao  166

Farber, Eli  42

Farr  67

Farrah  128

Farrar  70

Farrett  90

Fasciculus Chemicus  179

Fassell  117

Fassi  14, 185

Fassit see Fawcett

Faure  108

Fausille  152

Fawcett 132

Feber  101

Febos/Febus  3, 32, 37, 168

Fedam  54

Feibus  115

Feisal  114

Fell  111

Ferdinando, Simon  14, 47

Fermoor  76

Fernandes  29

Feron  67

Ferrar/Ferry  52, 63, 113

Ferreby  171

Ferro  30

Fez  166, 168

Fezer  168

Fickling  147

Field  103

Fielder  119

Fiennes  75-76

Fiesel  114

Filoux  142

Finland  87

Firestone  103

Fischer, David Hackett  60

Fischer/Fisher  101, 166, 168

Fish  103

Flatow  166

Fleming  99

Flemish  83-91, 166

Flerl  166

Fletcher  66

Fleury  152

Flood  68, 177

Florence, Florentine  114, 117

Florentina  114

Flores  33, 36, 86, 170

Florida  36, 148, 166, 178

Florio  45

Flory  121

Flowers  50, 86, 115

Fludd  see  Flood

Folsom  185

Fonda  100

food  71, 98, 178

Fookes  134

Foote  69

Forbes  18, 37, 43, 103, 127, 182

Forbes, John & Co.  169

Ford  108

Forest, de  86, 90, 100, 103, 124

Foret , de la  146, 152

Forrentine  117

Fort Pickering  161

Fossett  see  Fawcett

Foucks  115

Fowle  168

Fox:  115, 162, 168, 178;  George  111

Foxley  135

France  143, 159-60, 180

Francis  155, 168

Franck  see  Frank

Francken  185

Franco  127

Frank/Franks  42,  92-93, 115-16, 127, 168; Solomon, rabbi 178

Frankeln  184

Frankfurt  166

Frankish  177

Franklin  43, 181, 184; Benjamin  186

Frantz  115

Fraser/Frazier  103, 168

Frederica, Ga.  167, 170

Frederick County, Md.  118-19

Freeman  51, 67, 127

Freemasonry  162, 173-89

Freitas, de  29

French Canadians  43-44

French/Frensch  78, 100, 115, 128, 185

Frenchmen  140-58, 161, 166, 178

Friedmann  127

Friends of God  114

Frisbey  133

Frise, de  1003

Frobisher, Martin  18-19

Frocis  165

Fry  67, 70

Fuchs  111, 113, 115, 134

Fulk  155

Gabay  41, 97

Gable/Gabel  168

Gabriel  119, 168

Gades  112

Gaeiss/Geiss  113

Gael  127

Gager  67

Gaillard  146

Gaither  128

Galas  168

Galche  168

Gale  127, 143

Gallais  143

Galloway  184

Galphin  168, 170

Galphin, Holmes & Co.  170

Galprin  168

Galwey  115

Gamage, John  20

Gamalise  117

Gambia  87

Gamelin  67

Gammon  117

Gandy  168

Gans see Ganz

Ganz:  113:  Joachim  12, 14, 47, 171

Garber  119

Garcia  34, 53

Gardiner/Gardner   66, 67, 68, 90, 100, 103

Gardines  67

Gare, Le  146, 163

Garland  79

Garret  134

Garvey  186

Gaskill  68

Gass  113

Gates, Sir Thomas  20, 51-52

Gaussen  152

Gedda  117

Geddes  117, 187

Geddy  186

Gee  67, 124

Geiger  146, 179

Geist  103

Gemma   21

Gemmel  113

Gendron  146

Geneste  152

Genoa  13, 18, 27

George  106

George II  148

George III  186

Georgia  159-72, 184, 236-49

Georgia Southern University  171

Gerber, Jane  25

Germans and Germany  83, 94, 112-21, 166, 168, 179

Gerritsen  89

Gersone  28

ghettoes  46, 64

Gibbs  168

Gideon  143

Gil  32

Gilbert:  106; Humphrey, Sir 13, 14, 23, 45

Gilde  97

Giles  66, 68

Gillon  147

Gilman  184-85

Gimbel/Gimble  91, 103

Girtee  117

Gist/Guest  58, 113, 129, 137-39, 171, 184, 188

Gitlitz, David  14

Givens  37

Glasick  113

Glass  108

Glasscock  178

Glasser  113

Glick  121

Gloucester  69-70, 105

Glover, Jose  63

Gnostics  175-76, 181, 184

Goar  171

Godfrey  134

Godyn  86

Goff/Goffe/Gough  66

Goins  37

Gold  112

Goldsborough  133

Goldsmith  124-25, 168, 185

Goldstone  67

Goldthwaite  68

Goldwire  168

Gomery  117

Gomez  34, 49, 92-93:  Luis Moses 92-93

Gomez Mill House  92

Gomez Robledo, Francisco  34

Gonson   18

Good  37, 71, 121

Goodale/Goodall  68, 80

Gooding  125

Goodman  43, 66

Goodwin  43

Gookin  53

Gording  126

Gordon  37, 43, 162, 168

Gorges  63

Gorman  184

Gosnold, Bartholomew, Capt.  51, 181

Goss  113, 152

Gosset  152

Goujon  143

Gould  68, 103

Gouldsmith 54

Gouverneur  98

Gower  171

Goya/Goyer  153

Gozzi  152

Grace  165

Gracey  116

Gracia  116, 137

Graeme  187

Graff, de  114

Graham  99

Granger/Grainger  134, 186

Granville   24, 171

Gratz  42, 137

gravestones  120-21

Grazillier  90

Great Seal of the United States  184

Great Wagon Road  150

Greece  119, 158

Greek names  155, 171

Green/Greene  47, 50, 91, 117, 124

Greenville/Greenfield  47

Gregg  43

Gregory  137

Grenville, Sir Richard  22-24

Greville  148

Grey   18; Lady Jane 21

Grice  51

Grimes  51, 57

Groen  91

Grootinhuis, ten  83

Gross/Grossman  72, 113

Grotius, Hugo  83

Grunau  166

Gually/Guale  153

Guanajatabeye Indians  29

Guanches  27

Guerard  146

Guerin  168

Guerry/Guerra  143

Guess/Guest see Gist

Guggenheim  53

Gugul  168

Guillot  153

Guindi/Gundi  166

Guindre  166

Guion  142

Guirard  168

Gulet/Goelet  98, 185

Gunter  166

Gur  113

Gurganus  53

Guthrie, James  38

Guyenne  141

Guyon  153

Guzman  32

Gypsies; see Romani

Haak  179

Haal  116

Habacki  117

Habersham  170, 184

Hackett  134

Hadrian  175

Haes  147

Haga  116

Hagar  114

Haggara  54

Hagger, Nicholas  180-81

Hague, The  90

Haim/Haym  54, 92

Hair  118

Hakluyt, Richard  14, 23, 45, 63

Hala  118

Halam  54

Hale/Heale.Hales  18, 37, 53, 67, 162

Halfbreeds  161

Hall  128

Haman/Hammann  113

Hamburg  42

Hamel  86

Hamer  133

Hamet  177

Hamilton  43, 115-16, 168:  Alexander  98

Hamlin  79

Hamm 168, 169

Hammon  114

Hammond  133

Hamon  124, 129, 153

Hamor 52, 54

Hancock  184

Hand  155

Hanel  88

Hanna  155

Hannah  50-51, 72, 79

Harad/Harrod  170

Harby  43

Hari/Harry  113

Harlan  125

Harlem, N.Y.  88-90

Harman  134, 162

Harmon  146

Harnett  186

Harriot, Thomas  14, 23, 47

Harris   3, 23, 53, 168, 170, 185; Leon 3

Hart   13, 42, 43, 70, 97, 113, 115, 118, 171, 184, 185, 186

Hartlib  178

Hartman  113, 119

Harvard College  81

Harvey, Dionys  14

Harwood  127

Hasbroucq  89

Hasell  117

Hasselaar  83

Hava  116

Havre, Le (French port)  17

Hawkes  70

Hawkins  15, 43, 170; Sir John  16-18, 144

Hay/Hays  42, 43, 91, 97, 113, 118, 124, 185

Hayak  179

Hayim  113, 135; see also Haim; Chaim

Hayman/Heyman  116

Hayms  54

Hayne  148

Hazard/Hasaret/Hassard  153, 168

Heard  168

Heathecote  97, 162

Heaton, Ronald F.  184

Heays  135

Hebrew  56, 62, 126-27, 132, 171, 174-75, 178, 179, 186

Hebron  79, 117, 127

Heinle  166

Helfenstein  166

Helmsley  135

Helvinstine  168

Hendricks  42, 94, 164

Henriques/Henriquez  41, 94, 128

Henry  42, 43, 58-59, 128:  Patrick 58-59

Henry VIII  9, 13, 17

Hepburn  127

heretic  114

Hermes Trismegistus  176, 179

Hernandez  28

Heron  168, 185

Heroy/Heouida  142

Herrera  33

Herrick  68

Hershey  119

Hertz  114

Hewes  47, 67

Hey see  Hay

Heyrman, Christine  69-72

Heysig  179

Hezron  77

Hibberd  116

Hibron  117

Hill  131, 134

Hilton  145

Hime  117

Hingham, Mass.  78

Hiram  134, 175

Hird  see  Heard

Hirsch  119, 168

Hirschman, Elizabeth Caldwell  182

Hite  57

Hoffman  91

Holiday  124, 133

Holland  100, 162, 184

Homans  67

Homem  67

Hood  127

Hoopes  116

Hopwell  126

Horn/Horne, (van)  68, 99, 100

Horry/Hori  143, 146

Horsmanden, Mary  55

Houston  37, 43

Howard  5, 43, 137

Howard, Sir Charles (admiral)  17

Howell  40, 103

Howland  102

Hucks  162

Hud/Hut  127

Hudde  83

Hudson  128, 148

Huffnagle  116

Huger  146, 163

Hughes  162; see also Hewes

Huguenot Society of America  149 

Huguenots  19, 29, 41, 52-54, 56, 68, 86-88, 91, 95, 99-100, 108, 114, 118, 140-58, 163, 166

Huldah  72

Hungar  85

Hungary  45, 85, 114

Hunt, (de la)  43, 125;  Robert, Rev.  51

Hurd  see Heard

Hussy  127

Hutchinson  66, 69, 87, 187

Hutto  146

Hyam/Hyams  117, 165

Hyatt/Hyett  57, 127

Hyman/Hymen  116, 117

Hynson  128

Ibanez  30

Iconoclasts  114

Idris  176

imam  178

Inabinet  146

India  85, 174

Indian traders  221-23, 234-35

Ingersoll  68

Inigo  178

I’on  168

Ioor  147

Irby  155

Irish  106, 149-50, 155, 167, 170

Iroquois Indians  58, 96

Isaac/Isaacs  91, 114, 128, 168, 179, 184

Isabella  99

Isacks  see  Isaacs

Isacksen  90

Ishmael  116, 174

Isle of Man  137, 187-88

Isles  162

Ismali Muslims  174

Israel  41, 113, 116, 154, 164, 169; Israel 184; see also Ben Israel

Issachar  100, 116

Italian names  155, 163, 164

Itta  176-77

Izard  148

Izman  168

Jabel  175

Jabez  67

Jachin  179, 184

Jackson  43

Jacob/Jacobs  50, 51, 54, 68, 71, 83, 87-88, 97, 99, 113, 116, 118, 128, 167

Jacobeans  181

Jacobs, Joseph  3, 25

Jacoby  121

Jacome  29

Jadwyn  124

Jael  112, 134

Jafar  67

Jamaica  47, 91, 95, 146

James  147

James IV  183

Jamestown  51-53, 185

Jamison  185

Jappie  117

Jaquett  184

Jarvis  67

Jasper  106

Jay  91, 103;  John 184

Jeanneret  168

Jeansack  168

Jefferson, Thomas  73, 106, 181

Jeffries  67

Jekabs  87

Jemboy  51

Jemima  128, 139

Jenkinson  125

Jerald  67

Jewish Publication Society  186

Jews:  anti-Catholicism  64-65, 184; Ashkenazi  38, 43, 68, 92-93, 100, 112-3, 143, 164, 166, 189; Caribbean  40-42; diaspora of 14, 45-46, 98, 128-29, 184, 189;  Dutch  83-85, 100, 125, 179; Egyptian  128-29, 175-76; expulsions 7-9, 13, 21, 45-46, 69, 64, 84, 140-41, 189; in finance 9, 11, 21, 23, 51, 72, 91, 103, 160, 165, 174, 186; in Freemasonry 173-89; French 25, 54, 100, 140-41, 189; in London 141, 159, 164; naming practices 3, 66, 68, 77, 91, 113-14, 116, 128, 142, 174, 191-200; as merchants 1-2, 9, 39, 55-57, 64, 72, 85-91, 98; Moroccan 13; numbers 26, 44, 148; occupations  41, 52, 63, 90-91, 108-9, 118, 171, 174; as physicians  41, 135, 154, 178; rituals 68, 86, 91, 111, 174, 177-78, 201-2; Roman 26, 91, 141; secularization, 132; Semitic  38; Sephardic 25-27, 39-40, 43, 46, 64, 68, 128-29, 164, 166-67, 189, 192-200

Jimenez  34

Jirael  117

Joachime  90

Joder  see  Yoder

Johnson  43, 115, 168, 169

Johnson, Ben  180

Johnston  51, 96

Jones  51, 124; George F. 166; Inigo 178

Jordan  53

Josephus  41

Jouet  143

Jouneau  142

Journee  89

Jubel  175

Judah  124, 126

Judd  117

Judea  116

Judith  72, 177, 178

Juiman  54

Juliana  135

Jump  125

Juneau  97

Junia  67

Kalonymos  197

Kalteisen  146

Kammer  118

Kane  134

Kaph  112

Kapp  113

Karel  83

Karsens  89

Kaskaskia  160

Kast  67

Katz  90, 113

Kauffmann/Kaufman  119

Kay, (de)  91, 97, 168

Keene  185

Keeton  137

Kelkta  100

Kelly, Edward  179

Kelpius  114

Kendall, George  51

Kennedy  37, 43, 124, 137, 168

Kentucky  136-37, 186

Kettering  119

Keulon, van  84

Keymis, Lawrence  15

Keziah  126

Khazars  114

Khori/Cori  71

Kibbey  68

Kierside  90

Kimberling  119

King  113, 116, 119, 184

King David’s Lodge  187

Kinloch  147

Kinser  119

Kintz  113

Kissam  94

Klein  119

Kline  118-19

Kniffen  100

Knox, John  110

Kocherthal  101

Koenig  113, 119

Koger  137

Koons/Kuntz  100, 113, 118, 121

Koppel  68, 114

Krohn/Kron  113, 118-19

Kronenshelt  67

Kronin  113

Kugel  168

Kuhn  113, 115, 119

Kunst  101

Kuntz  see  Koons

Kupferstein, von  32

Kuykendal  146

LaBadie  179

LaBarree, Benjamin  65

Labat/Labatt  19, 41, 43, 153

Labon  43, 168

Lacy  178

Laet, de  86

Lafayette  184

LaFon  91

Lago  111

Lagrange  100

Lamb  127

Lambert  73

Lameth  175

Lancelot  80

Lane, Ralph  23, 47

Langlais  150

Langley  43, 153

Lansing  98

L’Apostre  162

Lareux  125

Laroche  see  Roche

Larochefoucauld  153

Lasse  117

Lassell/Lazel  128

Latrobe  184

Latvia  87

Laudonniere  46

Lauer  113

Laughman  121

Laurens  146

Laurent  91

Laval, de  151

Lavalade, de  151

Lavender, Abraham  140

Law:  John 159-60

Lawne  53

Lawrence  99

Lawson  43

Layard/Layarde, de  153

Laybon  see  Labon

Laydon, John  51

Laykan  117

Lea  184

Lea/Leah  116, 119, 126

Leal  33

Leavitt/Levet  54, 67, 76-80

Lebo/Leebow  161

Lebon  168

Leda/Ledah  124

Ledesma  165

Lee  56-58, 99, 184; Richard, II  57

LeFebre  89

Lefferts  98

Leflore/Lefleur  170

Lefroy/Leffroy  153

Legare  see  Gare

Legendres  163

Leghorn  27, 87, 129, 153

LeGuidon, Ormus  173

Leiden  51, 61, 62, 63, 65, 90, 126

LeMere  178

LeNoir  112

Leon, de  164, 166, 168

LeRoy  87, 89, 100

LeSage  161, 169

L’Escury, de  151

Lesher  100

Leslie  37, 170

LeSueur  89

Levan  113

Levandt  113

Levant Company  19

Lever/Levor/Levot  146

Leverett  69

Levet see Leavitt

Levi   14, 19, 54, 80, 97, 99, 113, 116, 128, 184; see also Levy

Levin  126

Levina  116, 132

Levinus  98

Levirate law  21, 127, 133, 136, 154

Levis  116

Levy  115, 118, 164-65, 187; Asser  42

Levyans  54

Lewers  113

Lewis  43, 132, 168, 170, 184, 185, 187

Lichfield  173-74

Lilly  177

Lincoln  84;  Abraham  79, 84

Lindo  147, 148

Lines/Lion  168

Lion  see  Leon; Lyon; Lines

Lippy  119

Lisbon  98

Liske  53

Lithuania  87, 148, 189

Little/Little  121, 162

Littler  174

Livingston/Livingstone  96-100, 103, 184, 185

Livorno  see  Leghorn

Lloyd  43, 135

Loackermanns  91

Lobato  153, 169

Locke, John  84, 145

Lodwick  96

Loew  see  Low

Logan  146

Logier  153

Lok/Louk/Locke   19, 84, 91

Lollards  114

Lombards  163

Lombe  163

Long  170

Long Island   134

Looney  37, 137, 187-88; Moses 187

Lopez  34, 42, 164; Rodrigo, Dr.  9, 51

Lopez de Mendizaval, Bernardo  34

Lora/Lohra/Loray/

Lore  113

Lorich/Lorich/Lorig  146

Lott  94

Louis XIV  160

Louisiana  160

Lourdes  146

Loureiro  29

Lovel  186

Lovelace/Loveless  137

Lovelin  127

Lovina  79

Low/Lowe/Loew/Loewe  80, 113, 128, 168, 169, 170

Lowell  80-81, 103, 185

Lowrey/Lowry  118

Luca  91

Lucas  89, 146, 148

Lucena  97, 165

Lucero  34

Lucke  117

Lucretia  50

Ludlow  97

Ludolph  178

Lula  155

Lumbee Indians  50, 51

Luna   18, 34, 35, 112, 137, 187

Lunel  140

Luria/Lurie  113, 118

Lutherans  42, 112-14, 166, 217-21

Lydia  77, 116, 118, 171

Lydius  94

Lynn, Mass.  70

Lyon/Lyons  42, 118, 164; Moses 42

maaseh  128

Mabel  116

Mace  124

Machado  29, 164

Machir ben Habibai  25, 76, 140-41

Mackay  170

MacKuen  170

Macon  186

Madagascar  100

Madariega, Salvador de  8

Madeiras  29, 95

Magalotti  178

Magellan  29

magic  20, 22, 175-76, 179

Magnon  91

Magus of Freemasonry, The  173

Mahaffa  154

Mahallah  154

Mahzig  143

Maimonides  181

Mainwaring  174

Makhir  see  Machir

Makissack  185

Malacca  84

Malea  161

Malka, Jeffrey  39

Mangin  154

Manigault  146, 163

Mann  43

Manner  127

Mannheim  88-89

Mansel/Mansell  124

manufactures  52, 144, 151, 163

Marat  56

Marcer  168

Marcus  128

Marcus, Jacob R. 41-42

Mare  186

Marest see Demarest

Mariah  112

Marie Antoinette, queen of France  177

Marin  30

Marino  170

Marion  146

Maris  116

Marius  91

Marks/Marx  91, 117, 171

Marquez/Marques  91

Marranos  1, 27, 41, 63, 70, 86-91, 95, 179; see also Conversos

Marseilles  170, 185

Marsh/Marshman  70, 134

Marshall  116, 184

Martin  43, 119, 185

Martineau  142

Martinez  34

Martyn  162, 168

Maryland  123-39, 167, 223

Masicq/Mazyck  143, 163

Mason, George  55

Massa/Masse/Massey  128-29

Massachusetts  60-82, 212-16; Freemasons 185

Massachusetts Bay Colony  66

Massey  116, 124, 128-31

Maszig  100

Mather  67

Mathy  154

Matson  96-97

Matthysen  89

Mau  85

Mauer  113

Maule  70, 71

Maurer  114

Maurice   20, 85, 91

Maurits  90

Maxey  129

May/Mays  62, 85, 121, 124

Maycock  53

Mayden  89

Mayow  117

Mazieres  154

Mazza  129

McAbee  37

McBean  168

McBlair  43

McCowen  118

McDermott, James 48

McDonald  188

McEvers  100

McGillivray  168

McKee  170

McMillan  125

McQueen  170

Mead  100

Mears  42, 168

Medina  32

Meeks  157

Meir  21, 94, 97, 168

Melle, de  29

Mellon  103

Melungeons  17, 23, 36-39, 51, 54, 72-72, 81, 119, 136, 161, 167, 170, 172

Memphis  160-61

Mendenhall  184

Mendez  32, 73, 169, 184

Mendoza  46, 84

Mennonites  114

Menoah  171

menorah  179

Mercier  154

Mercury  179

Mesick/Messick  100

Mesquita, de  169

messiahs, false  47

Messier  90

Mestayer/Metayer/

Matityah  143

mestizo  33

Mettauer  119

Mexico  33-34

Meyer, de  88

Meyer/Meyre, (de)  89, 97

Michael/Michaels  42, 43, 168

Michel  168

Michener  116

Michie  147, 187

Mickve Israel Congregation  184

Microcosmus Hypochondriacus  179

Miles   18

Millam/Millim  168

Miller  40, 134

Milton, Giles  48

Minelly/Minelli  128

mining  11-13, 47, 171

Minis  168, 170

Minor/Mainor  50

Minter  65

Minuit, Peter  87

minyan  124

Mira  116-17

Mirabal  32

Mirfin  77

Miriam  72, 81

Mississippi  160

Mitchell  43, 148

Moesman  88

Moffat  100

Mohammed  177, 179

Moises/Moyshe  54, 178

Molina  40

Money  133

Monfort  166

Moniac/Monaque  170

Monroe  184

Monroux, de  178

Montagne  88-89

Montagu  148

Montaigut  168

Montana/Montanha  88

Montbrai  186

Montel  41

Montesinos  32

Montfort, Simon de  140

Montgomery  146

Montgomery, Ala.  170

Moon  112

Moor, (de)  86, 113, 162

Moore  37, 43, 127, 131, 146, 148, 177, 185

Mooser  113

Mophat  see  Moffat

Moravians  166

Moray  178

Mordecai/Mordechai  42, 128, 131, 164-65, 170, 186

More  65, 108

Moreau  54, 100

Morell/Morrel  154, 168

Moreno  42, 114

Morgan  37, 103

Morgenstern  114

Moriscos  7, 9, 14,  17, 21, 24, 30, 46, 52, 110, 124, 126, 132, 144, 154

Moro District  161

Morocco  68, 90, 106, 177-78, 185

Morrey  186

Morris  96-100, 117:  Gouverneur  96-97; Robert  74, 165

Morrison  37, 43, 170

Mosco  49

Mosell  85

Moser  113, 116

Moses  113, 117, 118, 164, 177-78

Moshe  116

Mosquera/Mosquero  31

Moss  117

Mosser  113

Mott  184

Motta, de la  164, 187

Motte  146, 164

Motteair  168

Moulin  54

Moulton  184

Mournier  143

Mowbray  186

Muche  100

Muir  162, 186

mulattoes  125

Mullica  117

Munich  170

Muniz  32

Murer  118

Murfree  186

Murhead  113

Murr  113

Muscovy Company  19, 22

Musgrove, Mary  164

musicians  13, 55, 153, 185

Musick  143

Muslims:  in England 11, 177-79; expulsion from Spain 8, 178, 189; in Freemasonry, 173-89; practices  68, 110, 182, 202-203

mustee  170

Muttear  168

Myers, Myer  94, 100, 121, 186

Naar/Narr  41

Nairne  170

Naphthali  113

Napier  177

Narbonne  25, 35, 110, 140-42

Nash  134

Nashville  171

Nasi  140-41

Natchez Indians  160

Nathan  118

Native Americans  38-39, 48-49, 52, 57, 63, 85, 96, 117-18, 144-45, 161

Navarre  141, 179

Nave  188

Neale  186

Negos  179

Negroes  167

Neoplatonism  181

Neu  168

Nevis  146, 169

New  168

New Atlantis  180

New Hampshire  69, 77, 185

New Jersey  182, 184; Freemasons 185

New Madrid  160

New Mexico  34-36, 45

New Netherland and New Amsterdam  83-91, 95, 98, 117

New York:  Freemasons 185

Newberry  37, 43, 70

Newbury, Mass.  80

Newce, William, Sir  53

Newhouse  43

Newman  43

Newport  49, 51

Newport, R.I.  42

Ney  37

Nicasius  106

Nichols  43, 171

Nihil/Nile  117

Nimes  154

No, De la   19, 63, 91, 97

Noah  63, 155, 175

Noble/Nobel  43, 74, 168

Nochem  85

Noel  66

Nooms  85

Norfolk, Duke of  186

Normand/Norman  154

Norris   20, 70, 99, 116

North Augusta, S.C.  162

North Carolina  50-51, 137, 184; Freemasons 185-86

Norton, John, Rev.  63, 69

Norwood  70

Nova Caesarea  185

Novum Organum  180

Noyes  71

Numar  134

Numus Graecus  175

Nunes/Nunez  21, 28, 164, 170, 184

Nurse  70

Oaks  42

Ober  68

Oblinus, van  89

Occaneechi Indians  50; Trail 186

Oceanus  66

Ocosand  54

octoroon  160

Odell  128

O’Farrill, Jose Richardo  30

Ogden  99, 185

Oglethorpe, James  162, 184

OHassan  117

Ohio Company  58

Ohr  113

Olive  74

Oliver  80

Olivera/D’Oliveria  29, 147

Orange  140, 149, 151, 178

oranges; see citrus

Order of the Knights of the Helmet  179-80

Orpha  116, 155

Ortellius, Abraham  15

Os, van  83

Oseas/Osias  116

Osgood  70

Osorio, de  31

Ostenaco  188

Otis  184

Otmar  118

Ottey  174

Ottolenghi  163, 168

Ottoman Empire  2, 3, 8, 9, 11, 67, 90, 119, 145, 188

Ouizman  161

Oxford University  154, 173

Paca  124

Pace  53

Pache  124

Pacheco  98

Page/Pages  51, 57, 161, 168

Pagit/Paget  174

Paine, Thomas  73-75

Palatinate  100-1, 114, 118, 146, 166, 178

Palestine  154

Pamunkey Indians  51

Panther-Yates, Donald N.  163

Pantoja  32

Panton, Leslie & Co.  169

Papin  91

Papists  69

Papo/Papot  91, 168

Paracelsus  179

Pardo  32, 41, 144, 187

Paris  160, 168

Parisis  88

Parker  70, 137

Parmenas  125

Parmenius, Stephen  14, 45

Parmentier  89

Parmley  137

Parquet/Parke  40, 56

Parrat  124

Parret  132

Parris  68, 71, 146

Parrot  133

Parry  168

Paterson/Patterson  184, 185

Patey  128

Patte  106

Paulet  179

Paulicians  114

Paun  83

Pavey  168

Pavia  168

Pavo  128

Pavoncello  128

Pawley  147

paynim  173

Peach/peaches  128, 164

Peacock  128, 179

Pedroe  117

Peiser  91

Pelgrom  85

Pell  184

Pena  45

Penn, William  104-110, 121

Pennock  116

Pennsylvania  104-22, 166, 217-23; Freemasons  186; Lancaster 42

Pensacola  169

Pepe/Pepi  177

Pepin II  177

Pepin the Older  177

Pepper  112

Pepys  177

Percival  80, 162

Percy  51

Pereira  29, 103

Perez  28, 68

Perkins  78

Perla  165

Perrin  154

Perry  37, 51, 53, 66, 96, 146, 170, 184

Perryman  170

Persian  79-80, 83, 88, 113, 126, 128, 174

Persis  79

Petit  41

Petman  47

Petrie  100

Peyre  146

Peyster, de  98, 100, 103

Peyton  184

Phar  67

Pharabus  171

Pharez  68

Pharrow  112

Phartouat  29

Philadelphia  41-42, 115, 117-18, 161

Philip/Philips  see  Phillips

Philipse see Phillips

Phillipini  171

Phillippi  113, 119

Phillips   2-3, 17, 18, 42, 43, 94-96, 103, 115, 127, 128, 132, 164, 168

Phillipse see Phillips

Philliptenia  119

Philpot, John  21

Phipps  137

Phoebe  171

Phoebus  115

Phoenicians  11-12, 25, 28, 33, 73

phoenix  179

Picards  186

Pickett, Albert James  170

Piercey, Abraham  52

Pierpoint  53

Pierry  118

Pigod  186

Pigues/Piggs  147

Pincas/Pinhas  174

Pinckney  146, 148

Pinket/Pinquet  174

pirates and privateers  8, 13, 15, 31, 48, 90, 95

Pires  29

Pitts  72

Place  168

Plancius/Planck, ver  84, 97

Plese  100

Plessy  168

Plymouth  11, 18, 106

Plymouth Company  65

pogroms  140-41, 166

Pogue  41

Polak  41

Poland  51, 148, 189

Polish  90, 97, 121, 162, 165, 179

Polk  41

Pollard  178

Polock  97

Ponte/Ponto   18

Pontington  130-31

Poole  53

Pooley  53

Pope  184

Poppin  83

Porcher  146

Port, du  152

Portuguese  124, 141, 155

Pory, John  52, 63

Powell  53

Powers  37, 76

Pratt  162

Presto  89

Price  43, 185

Pricoleau  146

Priest  66

Prince/Printz  70, 79, 90, 185

Pringle  147, 186

Prise  117

Proctor  70

Protestants  9, 17, 19, 21, 41, 75, 86, 104-22, 141, 170

Provence  140

Puerto Rico  31-32

Pulitzer  103

Purdy  100

Purnell  132

Purrysburgh  120, 146, 165-67, 169

Putnam  70, 71: Israel 184

Pyncheon  66, 99

Pysdry  90

Pythagorean  184

quadroon  170

Quakers  42, 68, 70-73, 104-22, 125, 131, 139, 171-72:  meeting house 74

Queen Anne  115

Raboteau  154

Racial Exclusionary Act of 1790  3

Rackliffe  132

Rae  168

Rafael  128

Rain/Raines  126, 155

Raina  154

Rainsborough   106

Raisen/Rasin  126-27

Raleigh, Sir Walter  10, 12-15, 22, 23, 47

Ralph/Rafe  128

Rambo/Rambeaux  117

Ramey  54

Ramirez  32

Rand  67

Randolph  184

Rangel  32

Raphael   23, 155, 168

Rappe  143

Rasieres, de  85-86

Rassin  143

Rast  146

Rastell  106

Ratcliffe, John, Capt.  51

Rattier  91

Rattling Gourd, Daniel  188

Ravel  41

Ravenel  146

Rawlins  146

Raymond  153, 168; see also Reymond

Rayner, John  63

Re  142-43

Rea/Ray  68, 118; see also Rae; Rhea

Read/Reed/Reade  132-33

Reason  128

Rebecca  177

Redheaded Will, chief  188

Reform Judaism  158

Regreny  142

Reintzel  184

Reis  168

Remi  54

Remsen  98

Renssalaer, van  86, 90, 99

Reseaux  142

Reson  88

Reupel  94

Revere, Paul  67, 184, 185

Revil  50

Rey  168

Reyes  30

Reymond/Raimund/Raymond   47, 68, 168

Reyne  126, 155

Reynet, de  154

Reynolds, Joshua, Sir  188

Rezin  171

Rezio  169

Rhea  185

Rhett  147

Rhoda  116, 171

Rhode Island  87, 106, 186-87

Rhodes/Roads  112, 116

Ribault  144

Rice  43, 137

Richards  53

Rickman  73

Riddell  142

Ringgold  124

Ringo  91

Rittenhouse  74

Rive, La  153

Roanoke colony  14, 19, 47-51, 144

Robbins/Robins  132-33

Robena  112

Roberson/Robeson  171

Robertson  171

Robin   20

Robinet  143

Robinson  43, 65, 102, 171, 133

Robles  41

Roby  67

Rocca  162

Roche, de la  41, 153, 162, 168

Rochelle, La  17, 29, 91, 142-43, 146, 150

Rockefeller  103

Roderick  54

Rodrigo de Triana  8

Rodriguez de Matos, Don Francisco  34

Rodriguez/Rodrigues  28, 54

Roelfsen  90

Rogers  43

Roman  116

Romani  39, 160, 162, 203-4

Romeyn  91

Romig/Romich  116

Roosevelt  98, 101-3

Rosa  29, 133

Rose  101, 116, 126

Roseanna  132

Rosenfeld  98

Rosicrucians  179-80

Rosman  100

Ross  133-34, 147, 170

Roth  133

Roth, Cecil  47, 140

Rotterdam  97, 99, 108

Rouen  17, 89, 143, 144, 152

Rouse  128

Roussall  132

Royal Society (England)  178, 181

Rubel  94

Rubin, Saul Jacob, rabbi  166, 184, 236

Ruch, Benjamin  74

Rudisill/Rudisell  119

Ruhammah, Ammi  69

Ruine, de  89

Ruock  134

Rupp, I. Daniel  101

Russell  42, 43, 164, 170

Russia  148, 178

Rutgers  98

Rutsen  100

Ruvigny, de  151

Ryan  137

Ryser  85

Sabra  124, 133

Sachs/Sax  168

Sack  161, 168

Saenger  120

Safed  116

Safred  116

Sage  161

St. Albans  175

St. Augustine, Fla.  48, 144, 148

St. Clair  183, 184

St. Croix  98

St. Julian, de  167

St. Kitts (Christopher)  146, 168, 169

St. Leger/St. Leger   13, 55-56

Saintee  125

Saladin/Saladine  113, 116

Salas  31

Salee, van/Sallee  90, 137

Salem  71, 117

Salle  143

Salme  119

Saloman  165; Haym  42, 184

Salome  117

Salter  186

Saltonstall  66

Salvador  147, 158, 164

Salzburgers 165-67, 170

Sammes  162; see also Semmes

Sammis  88

Sampson  66, 79

Sams  148

Samuel/Samuels  134, 177

Sanchez  34

Sanco  174

Sand Mountain  187

Sanders  51, 94

Sanderson, William  14

Sands  52

Sandt, van  134

Sandusky  137

Sandys, Edwin, Sir  52, 63

Sanftleben  166

Sangree  113

Sankey  174

Santa Elena Colony  144

Santen  97

Sarazia  54

Sarfati  39

Sargent  81

Sassin  54

Sassoon  54, 177

Saul/Saull/Sall  117, 177, 184

Saunders  134

Sausssure, de  146

Savage  185

Savannah  184

Savell  67

Saville   19, 20

Savoy  178

Savoy  54

Saxe-Coburg  154

Saxony  178

Saye and Sele, Lord  69, 75-76; see also Fiennes

Saylor  37

Sayre  103

Scandinavians  83

Schaack, van  96, 102

Schaffer  184

Schenk, Leon  159

Scheretz  113

Schermerhorn  100

Schmael  116

Scholl  121

Schollay  185

Schorr  148

Schrag  119

Schrock  119

Schubrein  166

Schuelermann  118

Schuneman  101

Schure, van der  106

Schuyler  94-96

scientists  178-80

Scotland  99, 160, 182, 188

Scots-Irish  36, 38, 121, 146-47, 150, 171-71

Scott  51, 125, 127, 137

Scottish  98, 123, 165-66, 169-71, 185

Scribner  51

Secundus  178

See  119

Sefer Yetzirah  179

Seixas  154, 164, 187

Selitha  126

Sella  175

Sem  83

Semah  83

Semmes  100, 124; see also Sammes

Senior  169

Sequeira  164

Sequoyah  137-38

Seriah  79

Sevier  171, 184

Seymour   11

Shadlock   68

Shahan  132

Shakespeare, William  179

Shardlow  108

Sharick  117

Sharon  126

Sharp  133, 137

Sharpless  117

Shaw  43, 168

Shawnee Indians  120

Sheaffe  100

Shearith Israel, Congregation  93, 103

Sheeley/Schiele  146

Sheftall  165, 168, 184

Shelton  59, 171

Shem  67, 83, 167, 175

Shem Tov  174

Shepard/Sheppard  67, 170

Sherause/Sherouse  168

Shered  155

Sheriff  154, 168

Shiekell  117

Shilleman  118

Shin  112

Shippen  186

ships  55, 94-95, 98, 100, 166, 170:  Abraham 54; Alice 54; Anne 162; Ark 123; Ark Royale 17; Bonaventure 54; The Charming Martha 161; David 54; Dorothy 23; Dove 123; Dragon 72; Elizabeth  23, 54; Gilded Otter 88; Globe 54; Golden Hind 15; Happy Return 132; Henry and Francis 182; Judith 15; King of Prussia 73; Lion 23; Lydia 118; Mayflower  60, 65, 69, 79, 106; Revenge 24; Roebuck 23; Sea Venture 52; Supply 53; The Swan and the Pasha 15; The Seaman’s Secrets 15; Tiger 23

Shirley  63, 96

Shoeck  100

Shore  54

Shubael  66

Shuler  146

Sibyl/Sybilla  101, 126, 171

Siddon/Sidon  117

Sidney:  Philip, Sir  20, 21; Robert (earl of Leicester)  19-20

Sijmen  85

Silesia  166, 170

silk  57, 112, 163-64

Silva/Sylva  47, 86, 90, 124, 146

Silveira  29

Silver  112

Simcha  127

Simcock/Simcocks  109, 127

Simmon  100

Simmons  124, 146

Simon   12, 85, 113-14

Simpson/Simson  42, 43, 132

Sinaia  155

Sinclair  76, 79, 170

Singer/Singar  117

Sinn  113

Sizemore  37

Skene  173, 180, 182-83

Skidmore  134

slaves  28, 30, 31, 41, 48, 55, 66, 94, 98, 162

Slingerland  100

Sliterman/Sluijterman  168

Sloper  162

Slot  89

Sly/Slye  125

Smith  137, 162: John, Capt.  49-51, 181

Sneden  89

Snyder  119

Soderland, Jean R.   109

Solamona  181

Solomon  97, 113, 117-18, 175-77, 179

Solomon’s Builders  184

Solomon’s Lodge #1  184

Somerset  80

Sonntag  113

Sotheby  132-33

Soto, de  32-34, 70, 118, 134, 144, 193

Soule  66

Sousa/Souza  29

South America  83, 86

South Carolina  98, 140-58, 163-64, 167, 184, 224-35

South Sea Bubble  159-60

Southampton  11, 63

Southbe  132

Southell  148

Spanhauer  113

Spanheim  178

Spanish Inquisition  7-9, 14, 18, 34, 45-46, 89, 111, 113, 140-42, 165

Spann  171

Sparks  170

Specker  118

Speculum Sophicum Rhodostauroticum  179

Speelman  85

spice trade  83

Spielmann  52

Spielmann  85

Spinoza, Benedict de  84

Spotswood, Alexander  59

Sprague  67

Spranger  86

Springer  70

Sproule  185

Spyker  118

Staats  97, 99

Stacey  72

Staeck  89

Stark  185

Starkey  96

Starr, Jehosophat  184

Steel(e)  43

Steffey  119

Stegge, Thomas, Capt.  55

Steinman  117

Stephens  162

Stern, Malcolm, rabbi  43-44, 167

Sterner  121

Stewart  37, 43, 168, 170, 184; see also Stuart

Stiles  184

Stille  117

Stobo  148

Stoever  112-13

Stofell  134

Stone  178

Stoner  121

Stonesfer  121

Storer  155

Story  43, 66, 155

Stuart  181, 185

Stuckey/Stucki  118

Stukeley  47

Stultheus, Elias  160

Stuyvesant, Pieter  87, 92

Suasso  164

Suddarth  155

sugar  27, 30, 55, 66, 98, 169

Suire/Sueiro  91

Surinam  178

surnames:  aliases 39, 89; American Jewish  41-44; English  2-3, 14; etymology of 3, 129; Greek 14, 21, 26, 119, 124-25; Jewish 3, 8, 14, 16, 38, 65-66; in Sangre Judia 14; Melungeon  36-37, 161, 169-70; Moroccan 63, 146, 178; Muslim 2, 11, 31, 54; Norman 4, 12-13, 20, 57, 80, 148, 153, 174, 186; Sephardic 3, 14, 29, 33, 43, 192-200; Turkish 89, 111, 113, 116-18, 127

Surry County, Va.  185

Sussan  54

Susseny  119

Swabians  166

Swamp  118

Swan  185

Swanson  117

Swasey  68

Swedish  29, 86, 90, 117-18, 178

Sweet  51, 68, 81

Swerene  178

Swiss  114-15, 119-20, 165-67

Switzer  121

Sylva Sylvarum  180

Sylvester  68

Syme/Symes  58, 162

Symonds  68

Syng  186

Syria  116, 174

Taaffe  117

Tabbs  124

Tabitha  126, 128, 155

Tagger/Tajer  142

Taine/Tayne/Toynie  87-89

Taino Indians  29, 31

Talbot  187

Taliaferro  164

Talley  37

Tamar  66, 111

Tamberlane/

Tamarlane  126

Tamer  116

Tangier  91

Tankersley  37

Tannatt  169

Tanneke  88

Targe  142

Tartre  54

tau  134

Tauth/Toth  113

Tauvron  143

Tavares  29

Tavares/Tavarez  143

Tawwey  134

Tay, du  142

Taylor  126

Taylor, Alan  136

Telfair  164-65; Museum of Art  164

Templars  173-74, 180, 186

Temple  68, 76, 116, 167

Tench  135

Tennant  169

Tennessee  136-37, 161

Terck  116

Terrin  89

Terry  50

tetragrammaton  179

Teulon/Tholan  154

Teunis  91

Thau  113

Theiis  146

Tholon  154

Thomas  117

Thomas, James Walter  123

Thompson  43

Thorius  154

Thoth  184

tikkun olam  181

Tilghman  133-36

Tilley  66

Tillotson  124-25

Timmerman  117

Timothy  146

Tingell  126

Tishell  117

Titus  116

Tizack  117

Toaes  128

tobacco  55, 123, 160

Tobago  86-87

Tobias  147

Toccoa  154

Toeni, de  89

Tomes  168

Tondee/Tondie  168, 184

Tonti  168

Toohy/Touhey  53, 70, 134

Tookey  70

Tool  118

Toomer  186

Toro  148, 154

Torres  28

Tough  112

Toule  118

Toulon  141

Toulouse  140-41, 152, 154

Tourneir  89

Tov  117, 121

Tovey/Tawey  134

Toweison, William  19

Tower  162

Town & Country 103, 216-17

Town/Towne  70

Trachsel see Troxell

Tradescant  178

transcendentalism  82

tree of life  179

Tremayne   23

Tremi  89

Treutlin  166

Trevas  54

Trobe, La  153

Trower  126

Troxell  119, 120, 121

Truan/Trujan  168

Trujillo  34

Trustees of Georgia  163

Tryon  186

Tuch/Tuchmann  185

Tuckey  185

Tukey  185

Tulliere, du  88

Tumar  186

Tunisia  89, 91, 106, 155

Tupper  185

Turck  101

Turks  11, 39, 54, 68, 90, 106, 116; see also Ottoman Empire
spies and espionage  9, 19, 179

Turnepenny, Zachary  178

Tuscany  178

Tuscarora  Indians  50

Tuscher  118

Twisleton  76

Tyne  69

Tyre  69

Union Society  185

Unselt  166

Urgel  140

Usselinx  90

Utz  121

Uzes  140

Uziel  89

Uzille  89-90

Valentine  42, 43, 113, 184

Valleau  142

Van der Zee, James  90

Van/Vann  170, 188

VanBibber /Van Bebber  125

VanBrugh  185

Vanderbilt  103

Vanderpool  155

VanWyck  185

Varenne, de  150

Vashti  154

Vasquez  31, 144

Vassall  66

Vaughn  137

Vaux  89

Vaz/Vass  41

Vee  91

Velazquez, Diego  30

Venice  178

Venn  66

Verelst  162, 163

Vermeille  88

Vermillion  112

Vernon  162

Verral  74

Verveelen  88

Victoria, queen of Great Britain  154, 177

Vidau  54

Vigil  34

Villareal  31

Vincent/Vincente  143

Viola  119

Violette  138

Virginia  45, 46-59; Freemasons  184, 187; lists of immigrants  204-12

Virginia Company  12, 20, 51-53

Vizard  134

Vlatfoete  84

Voeux, des  151

Vogel  85, 168

Vogullar, Abram  29

Vriedman  127

Vries, de  41, 86, 95

Waldensians  114

Waldman, Felicia  175-76

Wali  112

Wall Street  92

Wallen/Walden  37, 50

Walley  112

Wallis  162

Walloons  41, 53, 62, 87-91, 114, 181

Walsingham, Sir Francis  19, 21

Walton, Izaak  178

Wampler  37, 118-19

Wannamaker  146

Ward   11, 136, 184

Wardell/Wardwell   68, 70

Wardlaw  146

Warner  184, 185

Warren  184, 185

Warrenton, N.C.  185

Warwick  78

Washam  132

Washington  58, 135; George  183, 184

Watauga  136, 161, 171

Waterman  187

Waters  106

Watie  188

Watson  43

Way  168

Webber  188

Weise  161

Welcome  41

Welsh  66, 147

Wesley  99

West  43, 77, 99, 162

West Country gentlemen  10-12, 14, 54

Weston  61, 63

Wexler, Paul  25

Whaley  146

Wharton  178

Whipple  187

Whitaker, Alexander, Rev.  52

White  43, 161, 170, 187; John 49-51

Whitehead  43

Whitehead, Alfred North  139

Whitney  179

Wickes/Wicks  134

Widdos  116

Wiesenthal, Simon  1-2, 8

Wiggans  see Wiggins

Wiggins  50, 168

Wild  147

Wilder  65

Willey  134

William II  149

William III  85

William the Conqueror  4, 76, 129

Williams  43, 50, 51, 68, 187

Wilmer  127

Wilson/Wilsen  43, 85

Wingate  134

Wingfield, Edward  51

Winston  58

Winthrop, John  60, 66

Wise  69, 155, 161, 168, 184

Wiseman  53

witchcraft  70-72, 78

Wizgan  168

Wolf/Wolff/Wolfe  37, 97 , 113, 118-19

Wood  43, 47

Woodward  145-46, 185

Wool  185

Woolley  99

Worrell  126

Wragg  148

Wren  51

Wren, Christopher, Sir  178

Wright  117, 171

Wright, Dudley  177

Wrightsboro  171-72

Wurteh  138

Wurzburg  166

Wyatt  52

Xavier  171

Yacam  116

Yale  69, 103

Yarach  112, 187

Yates  37, 43, 51, 100, 163

Yeamans  145

Yehudit  177

Yemen  145

Yiddish names  121, 126, 155

Yingling  121

Yoachim  116

Yoder  119

Yoel  57

Yomtov  124, 133

York County, Pa.  114-15, 120

Yorke, Sir John  18

Yorkshire  18, 62

Young  43, 137

Yulee  41

Zacharias  116

Zaltman  112

Zanes  117

Zapati  118

Zappali  118

Zarban  117

Zeh  113

Zenger  94

Zepp  119

Zeruiah  79

Zevi  119

Ziegler  146

Zimmerman  114

Zimri  171

Zinn  117

Zipporah  85, 132, 137

Zook  see  Zug

Zorn  166

Zorobabel  128

Zouche   11

Zuckermann, Adolph  140

Zug  116, 119

Zumbrum  119

Zypergus  89

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Back to Basics: Genetic Genealogy and French Kings

Thursday, April 17, 2014

An article in the European Journal of Human Genetics uses all the tools of a by-now mature genetic genealogy field to disprove that a blood sample and a head tested several years ago belonged respectively to King Louis XVI and his paternal ancestor King Henry IV. Based at the Laboratory of Forensic Genetics and Moledular Archaeology at Louvain, Belgium, the authors Maarten H.D. Larmuseau et al.
collected DNA samples from three living males of the House of Bourbon in a classic Y chromosome relationship study.

The three Bourbon males—two of whom are relatively young, which suggests royal aversion to cooperation in DNA studies is slowly dying out—proved to have a matching R1b haplogroup, contradicting the G haplogroup proposed for the blood powder sample preserved in a reliquary, which only problematically matched the head. The three living Bourbons were Axel Prince of Bourbon-Parma, born 1968, a scion of the ill-fated Kingdom of Tuscany, Sixte Henri Prince of Bourbon-Parma, a claimant to the Spanish throne noted for his quixotic lawsuit to prevent Japanese art from being exhibited at the Palace of Versailles because it "denatured" French culture, and João Prince of Orléans-Braganza, born 1954, an obscure member of a Portuguese branch that claims the abolished imperial throne of Brazil. According to royal genealogies, they are cousins descended in the strict male line from Henry IV King of France (1553-1610), a Huguenot and the first French monarch of the House of Bourbon. DNA strongly confirmed these descents.

Mitochondrial comparison was also exercised as a control to test whether rumors of infidelity and non-paternity events in the early Bourbons might have any credence.

Among the interesting new research for us was the claim that "the frequency of paternal discrepancy in the Western European populations is at most 3% and is probably <1% of human births." This surprising figure is based on:  

  1. Anderson KG: How well does paternity confidence match actual paternity? Evidence from worldwide nonpaternity rates. Curr Anthropol 2006; 47: 513–520. | Article |
  2. Voracek M, Hauber T, Fisher ML: Recent decline in nonpaternity rates: a cross-temporal meta-analysis. Psychol Rep 2008; 103: 799–811. 

Genetic genealogists will want to pore over this article for its standard citations on nomenclature, mutation rates and fast-moving hotspots among Y-STRs. It bids well to be a classic article of its sort.

A side observation may also be in order here. Often seen as living in the past, perhaps European noble houses are beginning to step into a new role to assist modern science in solving historical mysteries. That is a form of noblesse oblige, we think. And like any paternity test, it takes confidence.

Photo above:  Prince Sixte Henri Hugues François Xavier of Parma, Duke of Aranjuez, Pretender to the Spanish Throne and Knight of Malta, age 73. 

Citation  

European Journal of Human Genetics (2014) 22, 681–687; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.211; published online 9 October 2013

Genetic genealogy reveals true Y haplogroup of House of Bourbon contradicting recent identification of the presumed remains of two French Kings

Maarten H D Larmuseau1,2,3, Philippe Delorme4, Patrick Germain5, Nancy Vanderheyden1, Anja Gilissen1, Anneleen Van Geystelen1,6, Jean-Jacques Cassiman1 and Ronny Decorte1,2

  1. 1Laboratory of Forensic Genetics and Molecular Archaeology, UZ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
  2. 2Forensic Biomedical Sciences, Department of Imaging and Pathology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
  3. 3Laboratory of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Genomics, Department of Biology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
  4. 4Independent researcher, Versailles, France
  5. 5Independent researcher; Saint-Lary, France
  6. 6Laboratory of Socioecology and Social Evolution, Department of Biology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

Correspondence: Dr MHD Larmuseau, Laboratory of Forensic Genetics and Molecular Archaeology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Forensic Medicine, Kapucijnenvoer 33, B–3000, Leuven, 3000 Belgium. Tel: +32 16 33 66 63; Fax: +32 16 32 45 75; E-mail: maarten.larmuseau@bio.kuleuven.be

Received 14 May 2013; Revised 12 August 2013; Accepted 15 August 2013
Advance online publication 9 October 2013






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Bering Land Bridge Research from the Kankakee Swamp in Indiana and Illinois

Monday, March 10, 2014

Research by a Valparaiso University geography professor and his students on the creation of Kankakee Sand Islands of Northwest Indiana is lending support to evidence that the first humans to settle the Americas came from Europe, a discovery that overturns decades of classroom lessons that nomadic tribes from Asia crossed a Bering Strait land-ice bridge. Valparaiso is a member of the Council on Undergraduate Research.

 Dr. Ron Janke began studying the origins of the Kankakee Sand Islands – a series of hundreds of small, moon-shaped dunes that stretch from the southern tips of Lake and Porter counties in Northwest Indiana into northeastern Illinois – about 12 years ago. Over the past few years, approximately a dozen Valparaiso undergraduates have worked with Dr. Janke to create the first detailed maps of the Kankakee Sand Islands, study their composition and survey wildlife and plants inhabiting the islands.

Based upon the long-held belief that most of the upper Midwest was covered by a vast ice sheet up until about 10,000 years ago, Dr. Janke said he and other scientists surmised the Kankakee Sand Islands were created by sand in meltwater from the receding glacier.

 That belief was challenged, however, when he and his students discovered a year and a half ago that the islands were composed of sand that had come from Lake Michigan – something that should have been impossible with the Valparaiso Moraine standing between the lake and the Kankakee Sand Islands.

“That created a lot of problems with what we had previously believed about ice covering this entire area,” Dr. Janke said. “How could it get over the Valparaiso Moraine and be deposited there?”

Figuring out that puzzle required taking core samples from some of the remaining islands and the development of a new test by one of Dr. Janke’s colleagues to determine when sunlight last shone on the sand.

The answer that came back – the Kankakee Sand Islands were born between 14,500 and 15,000 years ago from Lake Michigan sand – was startling.

“We thought the area was completely covered by ice at that time,” Dr. Janke said. “That was a really earth-shattering result for us.”

Yet it also supports research showing that North American Clovis points – a particular type of arrowhead that represents the oldest manmade object on the continent –identically match arrowheads found in Europe and made by humans at approximately the same time.

And just within the last year, new research has provided strong evidence that a large meteorite struck the ice sheet covering North American and melted much of the ice shortly before the formation of the Kankakee Sand Islands.

“Our research at Valparaiso supports this other recent research because it indicates there wasn’t a massive ice sheet covering North America that would have allowed tribes to cross over from Asia via a Bering Strait land-ice bridge,” Dr. Janke said.

Dr. Janke’s research on the formation of the Kankakee Sand Islands is continuing this summer, with a focus on determining whether the islands closest to Lake Michigan are younger than the southernmost islands.

At one time, approximately 1,200 of the islands stretched out in a series of curved bands north and and south of the Kankakee River that are separated by a few miles and mirror the southern tip of Lake Michigan. Though many were destroyed by human settlement, about 700 still exist today.

Dr. Janke and his students also have been active in the Woodland Savanna Land Conservancy, an organization working to protect the Kankakee Sand Islands.

Scott Osthus, a recent graduate who worked with Dr. Janke to map the Kankakee Sand Islands and support their preservation, enjoyed being involved in the research effort.

“During my four years at Valparaiso, I saw how interesting and significant the Kankakee Sand Islands landscape is,” Osthus said. “I want to see this area preserved because it is so historically significant.”

Landowners have donated a handful of islands to the trust for preservation, and Dr. Janke is hopeful that others will follow their lead and perhaps eventually build enough support for some of the islands to be incorporated into Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore or their own state park.

“The Kankakee Sand Islands are archaeologically significant, with numerous Native American artifacts and burial grounds still present in the surviving islands, and they provide crucial habitat for native wildlife and plant species,” Dr. Janke said. “I’m hopefully the sand islands can be protected so we can continue to learn about and appreciate them.”

Story Source:
The above story is based on materials provided by Valparaiso University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

Comments

Jim Coyle commented on 19-Mar-2014 08:33 AM

An idea if not already considered is that the indiana sands were laid down before the Valpo Moraine. I'am of the opinion that there were 3 impact sites down the length of lake Michigan. This will need research to confirm. But check the outline of the lake and you see 3 rounded indents in the shoreline and in checking the depth charts there are 3 "holes" at the same sites.

Johari Sheared commented on 08-Apr-2014 04:26 PM

I have been tested several years ago and I recently looked at my test results again. DNA consultants was able to find that I have Native American ancestry and also Jewish ancestry. I am an african american women and I have been researching my family tree for a number of years and DNA consultants is very detailed. I checked my african american matches listed and it showed Equitorial Guinea. I looked up the information on this and discovered that it was settled by the Spanish and Portugese. I took the 18 marker test as well and discovered that I have 2 markers for Jewish and one for Native American. I thank DNA consultants for these results. This gives me a good idea where my ancestors came from.


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White People Behaving Badly and Ancient Giants

Thursday, February 06, 2014
By Teresa A. Panther-Yates

What if there once really were giants? We are familiar with tales of giants in fairy tales, like those in Jack and the Bean Stalk, or in tall-tales in movies like Big Fish. Giants are also mentioned in the Bible in several places: ” There were giants in those days” (Genesis 6:4). They have become part of our popular culture. But now that we have grown up, we no longer believe in giants. We no longer believe they could have ever existed, just as we no longer believe in the existence of Cinderella or Santa Claus.

What if we are wrong? According to the author of a new book on the subject of giant humanoids in Earth's past, "We live in an age where we are hypnotized by our own ignorance." The book is titled The Ancient Giants Who Ruled America:  The Missing Skeletons and the Great Smithsonian Cover-Up, and the author is Richard J. Dewhurst. It appeared last month from Bear & Company, a Rochester, Vermont publisher.

Spoiler alert:  if you swallow without reflection what the U.S. Government and the American public education system tell you about Native Americans, you won't like this book. You will probably throw it down in disgust and go on Wikipedia to be reassured that giants don't exist. Similarly, if you think it is an act akin to madness to suggest that not only was there a race of  eight-foot-tall people who dominated North America from as early as 20,000 BCE but also they were superior to white Europeans in strength, intelligence, health, diet, family life, government, religion and the arts, stop right here and read no farther. It goes against all right-thinking Darwinists, doesn't it?

The Cherokee called them the Moon People.The Utes and Paiutes spoke of a hideous race of cannibals ten feet tall living in caves. And the Choctaw also have an account of the race of giants that first colonized the Ohio Valley. Ancient oral history predates our modern history textbooks. It was important to relay information down, as in any culture, so it was not always storytelling. Could there have been giants? If so, could they have been Denisovan Hybrids and ancient cousins on our family tree? This is but conjecture. There is no conclusive evidence of the size of the Denisovans since thus far we only have a finger bone, two teeth, and a toe bone ( Anne Gibbons Science Magazine article, ” Genome Brings Ancient Girl to Life.”).

Even if there were giants, we don’t know who they were or the rest of the story. We only have clues. But if they were an ancient human or human cousin at some point there must have been some hot hanky- panky and some bizarre rendezvous as some have suggested ancient humans had with Denisovans, like Ileana Llorens does in her Huffington Post article, “Denisovans Mated with Humans.” If that is the case, some of us might have the ancestry of giants, or as the Cherokee called them, the Moon People.

According to Cherokee and Choctaw traditions and confirmed by excavations of bones in Tennessee, there was a “race of white giants” that once inhabited Tennessee, and “with whom their ancestors fought when they arrived in Mississippi in their migration from the west, doubtless Old Mexico.” Their tradition tells of the Nahullo (a race of giants who were wizards of amazing stature). This was considered to be but a “foolish fable, the creature of a wild imagination” but … “their exhumed bones again prove the truth of the Choctaws’ tradition.” (Donald N. Yates, Old World Roots of the Cherokee, p. 150).

Where did they find bones of the Moon People? Cushman, an Indian historian in his early work, History of the Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Cherokee Indians, (1898), recounts the discovery in 1880 at a burial mound site near Plano, Texas, of human bones “of enormous size . . . the femoral bones being five inches longer than the ordinary length, and the jaw bones . . . so large as to slip over the face of a man with ease.” Cushman goes on to identify them with the older occupants of North America called Allegewi or Taligewi (Talegans). Many historians, moreover, speculate they were the builders of the Adena mounds.

According to Rolling Thunder, a story was told by the Comanches in 1857 about the Moon people:

Innumerable moons ago, there was a race of white men, ten feet high, and far more rich and powerful than any white people now living, who inhabited a large range of country, extending from the rising to the setting sun. Their fortifications crowned the summits of the mountains, protecting their populous cities situated in the intervening valleys. They excelled every other nation which was flourished, either before or since, in all manner of cunning handicraft—were brave and warlike—ruling over the land they had wrested from its ancient possessors with a high and haughty hand. Compared with them the palefaces of the present day were pygmies, in both art and arms. They drove the Indians from their homes, putting them to the sword, and occupying the valleys in which their fathers had dwelt before them since the world began. At length, in the height of their power and glory, when they remembered justice and mercy no more and became proud and lifted up, the Great Spirit descended from above, sweeping them with fire and deluge from the face of the earth. The mounds we [i.e. the speaker Chief Rolling Thunder and his Spanish listener] had seen on the tablelands were the remnants of their fortresses, and the crumbling ruins that surrounded us all that remained of a mighty city. 

Could the words Nahoolo or Nahullo be a reference to these Moon people? The word Nahoolo or Nahullo “is now emphatically applied to the white race and no other . . . The Nahullo were of white complexion, according to Choctaw tradition, and were still an existing people at the time of the advent of the Choctaws to Mississippi,” concludes Cushman (153). And the Indian trader and historian, James Adair, often makes a reference to the Nahoolo or Nahullo in his History of the American Indians (1775).

There are other accounts of giants in this country and elsewhere. Fritz Zimmerman’s book, The Nephilim Chronicles, reproduces over 300 historical accounts of giant skeletons. Many are associated with the earliest mound sites in America, but Zimmerman’s survey of this worldwide phenomenon ranges from the Hunter-Fisher People of northeast Europe and Red Paint People whose movements were circumpolar to the giants of the Bible, noted by the Babylonian Talmud as having double rows of teeth, and “Giants’ Remains in the British Isles.” And Navajo legends speak of the Starnake People, a regal race of white giants endowed with mining technology who dominated the West, enslaved lesser tribes and had strongholds all through the Americas. They were either extinguished or “went back to the heavens.” The name may be a corruption of the Biblical race known as Anakim (Num. 13:33, Deut. 1:28).

The name Og (Hebrew “chief”) appears to be characteristic (see Zimmerman, pp. 188-91). The ogham alphabet is attributed to this cultural founder. Certainly, if these Moon people existed, they did not live peacefully with their neighbors. Many of the mound sites uncovered in the nineteenth century tell a story of constant warfare by incoming Asiatic tribes against the giants occupying the land. One grisly scene showed thousands of skeletons, male, female and young heaped in a mass grave, with warriors’ skulls pierced by arrows. It would appear that as these aboriginal inhabitants of the Ohio Valley were gradually displaced, some members of their society went over into the ranks of the new conquerors, bequeathing a strain of great stature still noticeable, for instance, in the Mobilian chief Tuscaloosa and DeSoto’s Indian queen Cofitachiqui, both of whom were said to be seven feet tall.

When Denisovan Man was first discovered, we had just a fingerbone to go on. We can only imagine the look of the skull. Geneticists conjecture an Austronesian type. Will a geneticist in the future derive ancient DNA from the bones of a giant?  According to reliable investigative sources, there are thousands of full skeletons available at the Smithsonian, Carnegie Instistute and other repositories, who have routinely swept the subject under the carpet for 150 years.

Perhaps at some point, DNA testing companies will have a test to see if you have Moon people in your ancestry. Not yet. But I do have some very tall Tennesseans in my ancestry.

Comments

Charles Stegiel commented on 14-Feb-2014 05:31 PM

The thought I have is that these are not Genus Homo. The second thought I have is that they might be descendants of Meganthropus. Meganthropus has been the target of numerous extreme claims, none of which are supported by recent peer-reviewed authors. Perhaps the most common claim is that Meganthropus was a giant, one unsourced claim put them at 9 feet (2.75 m) tall and 750 to 1000 pounds (340 to 450 kilograms). No exact height has been published in a peer reviewed journal recently, and none give an indication of Meganthropus being substantially larger than H. erectus. However, earlier estimates from the 1940s and 1950's based primarily on the very large Sangiran No. 6 jaw fragment led Prof. Franz Weidenreich, and several other anthropologists to conclude Meganthropus was indeed a giant, and substantially larger than any H. erectus, perhaps on the order of 2 to 4 times the body mass. This fact seems to be born out in Von Koenigswald's and Weidenreich's decision to name the taxon in 1942, "Meganthropus palaeojavanicus" which in Neo-Latin translates to "great or large man of ancient Java." The text is from Wiki.

C A Beverforden commented on 03-Mar-2014 01:33 PM

Since I have heard so much about the giant skeletons, I decided to search historic newspapers. Within a few miles of where I was born in Indiana a 10 foot skeleton was unearthed. My Tennessee inlaws are quite tall also.


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Top DNA Stories of the Year

Thursday, January 02, 2014

DNA Rocks the News 

By TERESA PANTHER-YATES

This was definitely the year that was in DNA news. Here are, we propose, the top three stories.

First, last June came the U.S. Supreme Court decision that police officers can now legally take DNA from anyone they arrest. Yes, and they then then enter your DNA profile into a database where they can match it with existing samples (Dan Noswolitiz, “It’s Now Legal for the Police to Collect DNA,” Popular Science). Since we live in a rather scary world since 9/11, I thought that might be constructive, at first glance, until I realized that the key word is “arrest” not “charged.” What is the difference? People are falsely framed and arrested every day as well as arrested for minor offenses. Consequently, there are any number of ways this could be abused. Even if someone is declared innocent, guess what? They still have your DNA.

Do you want others to have your personal genomic data? That is a question you might want to ask of any DNA testing company you use. What do you do with my DNA? Do you keep it and put it in a database or share it with others? In the same month, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that human genes cannot be patented, except for synthetic genes. This was in response to a lawsuit between “Myriad Genetics, a medical diagnostics company, and the Association for Molecular Pathology” (Young). Many saw this as a win for women with an elevated genetic risk of breast and ovarian cancers as well as researchers and scientists (Richard Wolf, “Justices Rule Human Genes Cannot Be Patented,” USA TODAY) Why? Myriad had a monopoly on the gene; as a result, no one else could produce or manufacture it, and the genetic test was inordinately expensive.

23 and Me vs. Nearly Everybody Else 
Not every woman has a bank account matching Angelina Jolie’s. Her decision to first take the genetic test and then have a preventive double mastectomy because of her high risk of breast cancer brought this case to the forefront. But the breast cancer issue also played into the biggest and most controversial story of the year concerning genetics testing for disease and the battle between the FDA and 23&me. The FDA told them to stop selling health and medical related information with their genetic tests. Some see this as the FDA stealing their right to their own personal genetic information. Since there is no genetic destiny for disease because of other lifestyle and epigenetic factors (Carl Zimmer, “Hope, Hype, and Genetic Breakthroughs” Wall Street Journal), others see this as part of a process to ensure that these tests are accurate and not misinterpreted. However, knowing you have a high genetic risk for a disease might mean you make better lifestyle choices. I think in the end it will not spell the end for direct-to-consumer genetic health services. Hopefully, the industry will not only be resurrected, but there will also be better guidelines for the field as well as the consumer spurring a wider market so consumers have more choices. I am looking for that silver lining in the New Year.

So that's three stories that spell continuing interest in DNA testing everywhere. Watch for headlines on personal genomics, medical tests and Denisovans/Neanderthals in the coming year.

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DNA: Storage Medium of the Future

Friday, December 27, 2013

One strand would hold libraries of digital information

The next decade's version of Facebook, Twitter, or Pandora could be digitally encoded on DNA. How? The next app? A card in one’s wallet? Who knows?

This is not a new idea. It has been suggested before that entire libraries of information could be encoded on DNA and others have tried it without success. But no one thought it was possible until, according to an article in Nature by Monya Baker, “DNA Data Storage Breaks Records,” reported that a team of Harvard researchers encoded a book on DNA and said there was plenty of room for more. A lot more. The possibilities could be limitless.

Cells die and replicate, so using cells is not a very secure system.  The team, led by George Church, a synthetic biologist from the Medical School in Boston, devised a new system using ink to convert the data onto glass chips instead of cells. It worked. Of course, we’re a long way from understanding this completely. And there are problems. It isn’t feasible at the moment to encode an entire library onto DNA. It is far too costly.

You can’t use DNA to drive your computer instead of your hard drive. But it could happen. At first, many thought no one would want to drive a car, fly in an airplane, or even use a computer. In a similar manner, this could be the first glimpse of ushering in a new era just as all those were. How exciting!

But what would be the advantages? Durability and security of limitless information. Imagine what we would know if we could still go to the Library of Alexandria. Even today, beyond the everyday virus, there are talks of cyber-wars and cyber threats that could potentially shut down vast data and threaten the security not just of your personal computer but of nations. What if we no longer had to worry about those things? How would that change our world?

Also, if DNA can store this much information, what is being stored on it now that we don’t even know about? What libraries of information are on our own DNA that we have yet to read? What will it tell us about ourselves in the future that we have yet to discover?

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